NYU Langone Medical Center and the Hospital for Joint Diseases (HJD) share a rich history spanning HJD’s academic affiliation with the NYU School of Medicine in 1986, its clinical association with the NYU Langone Medical Center in 1994, the fusion of the two orthopaedic departments in 1997, and the integration of the rheumatology programs in 2001. On January 1, 2006, NYU Langone Medical Center and HJD merged, becoming the NYU Langone Medical Center’s Hospital for Joint Diseases.

The former HJD was founded in 1905 by the brothers Henry and Herman Frauenthal, physicians with the mission of "bringing relief through care to the orthopaedic problems of children." Once known as the Jewish Hospital for Deformities and Joint Diseases, the facility was originally a small clinic of seven beds in a brownstone building on Lexington Avenue in upper Manhattan. Within a year, it had moved into larger quarters at 1919 Madison Avenue. Soon after that, six contiguous brownstones were purchased, connected, and converted into the Hospital for Joint Diseases.

For seventy-five years the hospital remained at its uptown location, expanding gradually over the years. In 1979, it moved into its present quarters, a large new building erected on the corner of Second Avenue and 17th Street in the Gramercy Park neighborhood of Manhattan, reflecting the hospital's expanding commitment to specialized patient care, research and medical education.

The Hospital for Joint Diseases, with is innovative programs and services, has earned an international reputation as a highly respected and educational resource. The Hospital for Joint Diseases Department of Orthopaedic Surgery provides care and services in subspecialty areas including joint replacement, the spine, pediatrics, sports medicine, the hand, shoulder, elbow, foot and ankle, and offers immediate orthopaedic care (I-Care). The Department of Rheumatology and Medicine provides programs for rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, lupus, pediatric rheumatology, and Lyme Disease. The Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine at 17th Street offers inpatient and outpatient comprehensive rehabilitation programs for orthopaedic, rheumatological or neuromuscular conditions. The Department of Neurosciences provides programs in general neurology, orthopaedic neurology, pain management, multiple sclerosis, and neurorehabilitation.