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Al Garfall
MD Honor Student

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Education and Training

6/03-present - Medical Student, NYU School of Medicine.

9/98-6/02 - A.B. in Molecular Biology from Princeton University. Undergraduate thesis in the laboratory of Dr. Virginia Zakian: "Mutagenesis of Rrm3p, a helicase involved in telomere and rDNA replication."


Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) is required in the telencephalon for the formation of the most ventral structures as well as the dorsal midline. The role of Shh in patterning these structures is, in large part, modulated as Shh antagonizes the activity of two proteins: Pax6 and Gli3-repressor (Gli3-R). Downstream of their interaction with Shh, however, it is unclear how Pax6 and Gli3-R interact in dorsal/ventral patterning. Since genetic analysis of this interaction in the mouse telencephalon has been difficult, I am examining this interaction in the mouse spinal cord, where development is analogous in many ways to development in the telencephalon.