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The parathyroid glands are four pea-sized glands. They are located next to the thyroid gland in the neck. The glands secrete the parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH helps to regulate the level of calcium in the blood.
In hypoparathyroidism, there is not enough PTH secreted. This causes low levels of calcium in the blood. Low blood calcium is known as hypocalcemia.
Hypoparathyroidism may be caused by:
- Removal of the parathyroid glands
- Underlying autoimmune disorders
- Absence of the parathyroid glands at birth
- Damage to the parathyroid glands
- Genetics conditions such as DiGeorge syndrome
- Magnesium deficiency due to alcoholism, and/or malnutrition
- Other causes, such as metal overload from iron, magnesium, or aluminium
In some cases, a cause cannot be found.
Factors that increase your chances of hypoparathyroidism include:
- Multiple autoimmun