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MS is a chronic, disabling disease of the central nervous system. It causes injury to the sheath called myelin that covers nerve fibers in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves.
MS is usually diagnosed in adults between the ages of 20-50. The condition also affects children in an estimated 2%-5% of cases.
A malfunction of the body's immune system seems to be the cause of MS. The immune system attacks and damages the myelin. The exact cause of this malfunction is unknown.
Risk factors for MS include:
- Sex: female
- Being exposed to certain viruses such as herpes virus-6 and Epstein-Barr virus
- Having family members who have MS
- Being of Northern European descent
- Growing up in a colder climate, as opposed to a tropical climate
- Having certain immune system genes
- Having inflammation of the optic nerve
- Having low vitamin D levels
- Being obese as an adolescent
There are many different types of MS. When it occurs during childhood, the condition usually takes the form of relapsing and remitting. This means that the symptoms suddenly reappear every few months or years, last for a few weeks or months, then go back into remission.
The symptoms can range from mild to severe and may include:
- Numbness or tingling in the face or limbs
- Impaired vision in one or both eyes, including blurred vision, double vision, and loss of vision
- Eye pain
- Muscle stiffness, spasms, weakness
- Poor coordination
- Trouble walking or maintaining balance
- Weakness in one or more limbs
- Bladder problems, including urgency, hesitancy, incomplete emptying, and incontinence
- Bowel problems, including constipation
- Slurred speech
- Difficulty swallowing
- Forgetfulness, memory loss, confusion, and difficulty concentrating or solving problems
Factors that may trigger or worsen symptoms include:
- Heat, including hot weather, hot baths or showers, and fever
These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. If your child has any of these, talk to the doctor.
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your child's bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
- Lumbar puncture , also known as a spinal tap
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
Your child's nerve responses may be tested. This can be done with:
- Sensory evoked potentials test
- Visual evoked potential test
Images may be taken of your child's bodily structures. This can be done with an MRI scan .
The goals of MS treatment are to:
- Relieve symptoms
- Prevent relapses
- Delay disability
- Slow disease progression
Work with the doctor to develop a treatment plan for your child. Options include:
Examples of medications used to treat MS in children include:
- Corticosteroids—to reduce inflammation and shorten MS flare-ups
- Interferon beta —used to suppress the immune system
- Intravenous immunoglobulin—a type of antibody
With plasma exchange , the proteins causing the damage to the myelin are removed from the blood. During the plasma exchange, fresh plasma is added to the blood.
Depending on the symptoms, the doctor may recommend that your child works with a:
- Physical therapist to help with muscle strength and tone, dexterity, and walking ability—Participating in a regular exercise program may also be helpful.
- Speech/language pathologist
- Occupational therapist to help with daily living tasks
- Psychologist or therapist to help with coping skills
Your child may also need support from teachers and staff at school.
There are no guidelines for preventing MS. There may be some steps that you can take to prevent your child from having flare-ups, for example:
- Give your child medications as prescribed.
- Have your child avoid hot weather and hot baths and showers.
- Be sure that your child gets adequate rest.
- Encourage your child to exercise regularly.
- Have your child learn stress reduction techniques.
Try to have your child avoid infection. You can do this by:
- Teaching good hand washing techniques
- Staying away from people who are sick
- Cooking food thoroughly
Last reviewed September 2013 by Kari Kassir, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.