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Adrenal Glands  
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Definition  

Neuroblastoma is a rare, cancer that usually occurs in children under age five. The tumor is often found during infancy and may begin before birth. It typically develops in nerve tissue near the adrenal glands just above the kidneys. However, some tumors may develop in the abdomen, chest, neck, or spinal cord.

Like most cancers, neuroblastoma can eventually spread to other parts of the body. Early detection and treatment may prevent the spread of cancer.

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Causes  

It is not known exactly why the tumor develops. A genetic mutation may be involved.

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Risk Factors  

Factors that increase the risk of neuroblastoma include:

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Symptoms  

Symptoms will depend on the location of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread. Some symptoms may include:

  • Lump anywhere on the body, usually the chest, neck, or abdomen
  • Abdominal pain (swollen abdomen in infants)
  • Pain such back or bone pain that is not explained
  • Bowel changes and difficulty urinating
  • Trouble breathing or coughing
  • Weakness or paralysis
  • Problems with eyelid and pupil
  • Easy bruising or bleeding
  • Weight loss
  • General ill feeling (fever, fatigue, shortness of breath)
  • Sudden involuntary jerking of muscles and random eye movements

These symptoms may be caused by another condition. If your child has any of these, talk to the doctor right away.

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Diagnosis  

The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests will depend on the suspected location of the tumor. Tests may include:

  • Urine and blood tests
  • Ultrasound—to create images of structures in the body
  • MRI scan —to create images of structures in the body
  • CT scan —to create images of structures in the body
  • Myelogram—to create images of the spinal cord
  • X-ray —to create images of structures in the body
  • Biopsy of tumor—a piece of the tumor is removed and examined
  • Bone marrow biopsy —a sample of bone marrow is removed and examined

The cancer can spread to the liver, lungs, and bones. Early detection is key to a good prognosis.

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Treatment  

Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include:

Surgery  

If possible, surgery may be done to remove the tumor.

Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy  

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body, killing mostly cancer cells. With radiation therapy , radiation is directed at the tumor to kill the cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be used if the cancer has spread.

Bone Marrow Transplantation  

During this type of transplant , bone marrow is removed, treated, and frozen. Large doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are applied to kill the cancer cells. After treatment, the bone marrow is replaced via a vein. Transplanted bone marrow may be your child’s own bone marrow that was treated or it may be marrow from a healthy donor.

Some neuroblastomas go away on their own. It is not known why this happens.

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Prevention  

Since the exact cause is unknown, there is no way to prevent this type of tumor from forming.