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Definition  

A port-wine stain is a mark that is usually present at birth. It is made of enlarged blood vessels. This makes it appear as a reddish-purple patch of skin.

Port-wine stains are generally harmless. They may cause emotional and social problems due to their visibility.

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Causes  

Port wine stains are caused by a problem with the small blood vessels in the skin. Blood vessels can normally open and close to meet the needs of the skin. In port wine stains, the blood vessels stay wide open. Blood fills the vessels causing the purple color and raised skin. It is not clear what causes the problems with the blood vessels.

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Risk Factors  

There are no known risk factors for port-wine stains.

Conditions associated with port wine stains include:

  • Sturge-Weber syndrome
  • Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome
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Symptoms  

Symptoms include a mark that may be:

  • Reddish or purplish in color in adults
  • A flat, red or light purple lesion in children
  • Raised in adults
  • On the head or neck
  • Bleeding when scratched
  • Dark and thick over time

A port-wine stain near the eyes may cause other problems.

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Skin Biopsy  
Skin proceedure

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Diagnosis  

A port-wine stain can typically be diagnosed based on its appearance. In some rare cases, a skin biopsy may be done.

Since some stains may also be associated with other medical conditions, your doctor may order other tests to look for any of these related conditions.

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Treatment  

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:

Lasers  

Laser treatment may be used to destroy the blood vessels causing the stain. There are some risks with laser treatment. It may result in scarring and skin lightening or darkening.

Flash-lamp pumped pulse dye laser is one type used with port wine stains. Multiple treatments may be necessary.

Other Treatments  

Other treatment options include freezing, surgery, tattooing, and radiation. These treatment have had limited success. Lasers have replaced most of these treatments.

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Prevention  

Port-wine stains cannot be prevented.