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Cornea of the Eye  
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Definition  

LASIK is a surgery that uses a laser to reshape the cornea of the eye. This reshaping changes focusing power and usually corrects vision. Surgery may be done on both eyes, either at the same time or on separate occasions.

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Reasons for Procedure  

LASIK is done to eliminate the need for glasses or contact lenses.

Most people who get LASIK will still need reading glasses at middle age and beyond to correct for presbyopia (decreased ability to focus due to age). Be sure to discuss presbyopia with your doctor prior to getting LASIK so that you understand how it will affect your vision.

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Possible Complications  

LASIK eye surgery has a relatively low complication rate, but they can occur. Possible complications include, but are not limited to:

  • Under- or over-correction of the cornea shape
  • Infection
  • Scarring
  • Fuzzy or blurry vision
  • Poor night vision
  • Seeing halos or sunbursts around light/glare
  • Long-term dryness, scratchiness, or pain in eyes
  • Correction may not last
  • Permanent decrease or loss of vision that cannot be corrected with glasses or contact lenses
  • Need for additional laser or surgery

Some factors that may increase the risk of complications include:

  • Pre-existing eye disease, such as glaucoma, or abnormalities in the shape of the cornea, such as keratoconus
  • Persistent eye infections, such as blepharitis
  • Dry eyes
  • Thin cornea
  • Large pupil size
  • Autoimmune disease, immunodeficiency, and other conditions, or use of medications that alter wound healing
  • Diabetes
  • Any other form of fluctuating vision
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What to Expect  

Prior to Procedure  

Your doctor will likely do the following:

  • Complete eye exam
  • Review of medications

Leading up to your procedure:

  • It is best to stop wearing your contact lenses at least 2-4 weeks before surgery. The length of time depends on the type of contact lenses and your doctor’s preference.
  • Arrange for a ride to and from the procedure.
  • Do not wear lotion, cream, make-up, or perfume the day before or day of surgery.
  • You may be asked to scrub your eyelashes and/or use eye drops before the surgery.

Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure, like:

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
  • Blood thinners
  • Antiplatelets

Anesthesia  

Drops are given to numb the surface of the eye. You may be given a sedative to help you relax during the procedure.

Description of Procedure  

You will be positioned on your back in a reclining chair. The area surrounding your eye will be cleaned. Numbing drops will be placed in your eye. The eyelid will be held open with a special device. A ring will be placed on the eye and pressure is applied to create suction. A blade will then be attached to the suction ring. The doctor will use the blade to cut a flap in the cornea. The doctor will fold back the flap.

You will look into a light (not the laser). A laser will be directed to remove a specific amount of corneal tissue. The laser will make a ticking sound as it reshapes the cornea. At this point, some patients report a smell similar to burning hair. Once the laser is finished, the corneal flap will be gently placed back into position. Antibiotic drops will be put in the eye. A shield will be placed over the eye.

There are other ways to do laser vision correction surgery. One includes using a laser to make the flap in the cornea. The other includes removing the top layer of the cornea with a special device or chemical, then using the laser. Ask your doctor which procedure is best for you.

How Long Will It Take?  

Less than 30 minutes.

How Much Will It Hurt?  

You will likely feel some discomfort when the suction ring is applied. Just after the procedure, expect a burning or itching sensation or the feeling that there is a foreign object in your eye. Your eye may tear and be red and bloodshot. You will most likely have a loss of vision at times during the procedure. This is normal.

Postoperative Care  

You will wear a shield to protect your eye from injury or pressure, even while sleeping. When you return home, do the following to help ensure a smooth recovery:

  • Do not rub your eyes.
  • Limit physical activity, especially contact sports for up to one month.
  • Wear the eye shield at night as instructed.
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