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Ankylosing Spondylitis  
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Definition  

Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the attachment points between tendons, ligaments, or capsule and bone. It causes arthritis of the joints, mainly the spine and pelvis (sacroiliac joints). Ankylosing spondylitis can also cause inflammation of the eyes, lungs, or heart valves.

In severe cases, new bone may develop between the spinal bones. This can cause some areas of the spine to fuse. This fusion will decrease the flexibility and movement of the spine.

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Causes  

The cause of ankylosing spondylitis is not known. Some cases may be associated with a problem in a specific gene.

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Risk Factors  

Factors that increase your chance of ankylosing spondylitis include:

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Symptoms  

The severity of symptoms can vary from mild to very severe.

Common symptoms may include:

  • Stiffening and pain (arthritis) of the:
    • Lower back
    • Sacroiliac joint, where the back and hip meet, possibly radiating down the legs
  • Pain that is often worse at night
  • Stiffness that is worse in the morning
  • Symptom improvement with exercise or activity
  • Occasionally, pain and stiffness in other joints:
    • Knee
    • Upper back
    • Rib cage
    • Neck
    • Shoulders
    • Feet
  • Chest pain, which may suggest heart, heart valve, or lung problems
  • Eye pain, visual changes, increased tearing

Less common symptoms may include:

  • Fatigue
  • Loss of appetite or weight loss
  • Fever
  • Numbness (if arthritic spurs compress the spinal nerves)
  • blood in the urine or swelling from kidney disease
  • irregular heart beat