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Definition  

Cholera is an infectious disease that affects the intestinal tract.

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Small Intestines  
Small intestines

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Causes  

Cholera is caused by a specific bacteria. This bacterium releases a toxin that causes rapid loss of fluids from the small intestines. Cholera is spread by ingesting food or water contaminated by fecal waste. It is common in countries that lack proper sewage disposal.

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Risk Factors  

Cholera is more common in children 2-5 years of age. Factors that increase your risk of getting cholera include:

  • Living or traveling in areas where cholera is present
  • Eating contaminated food or fluids
  • Eating raw or undercooked shellfish
  • Having blood group O
  • Having a weakened immune system
  • Having low levels of stomach acid
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Symptoms  

Symptoms of cholera begin quickly and can be severe. They include:

  • Sudden onset of painless, watery diarrhea without blood or pus
  • Thirst
  • Vomiting
  • Muscle cramps

The severity of symptoms ranges from mild, short-lived diarrhea to shock and death due to extreme fluid loss. Most symptoms occur one to three days after exposure.

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Diagnosis  

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. It is important to tell your doctor about any recent travel to areas where cholera is common. If cholera is suspected, stool and blood samples will be tested.

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Treatment  

Fluid Replacement  

The first priority in treating cholera is to replace fluids and electrolytes lost through diarrhea . In severe cases, dehydration can be fatal if it is not treated right away. Hydration solutions can be given orally or through an IV.

Antibiotics  

Antibiotic medications may help shorten the course of the disease in severe cases. They may also be given to the people you live with to prevent them from becoming ill.

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Prevention  

Cholera Vaccine  

Although it is not available in the US or Canada, a cholera vaccine is available in areas where cholera is common. Currently, these areas include parts of these countries and continents:

  • Asia
  • Africa
  • India
  • South America
  • Central America

If you will be visiting a country where cholera is present, you may be advised to receive the vaccination when you arrive at your destination.

Careful Eating Habits  

You can prevent cholera by avoiding contaminated food and fluids in areas where cholera occurs.

When traveling in areas where cholera is common, you are advised to:

  • Drink only bottled or boiled water
  • Eat only well-cooked foods that are served hot
  • Avoid all raw or undercooked shellfish
  • Avoid salads
  • Avoid raw vegetables that you have not peeled yourself
  • Carry oral rehydration solution (ORS) and know how to use it if you develop severe diarrhea