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Definition  

Lead is a toxic metal that is very common in the environment. Experts believe that no level of lead in the body is safe for children. Concern about lead poisoning in children occurs when lead reaches a level of 10 mcg/dL in the blood. Levels of 20 mcg/dL or more represent actual lead poisoning. This can lead to:

Lower levels of blood lead below currently accepted safe levels can lead to learning and/or behavioral difficulties. They can also delay puberty in boys.

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Causes  

Lead can be absorbed into the bloodstream by eating, drinking, or breathing contaminated particles.

Lead is used in many industrial processes and within the home. It can be found in:

  • Paint
  • Dust
  • Soil
  • Drinking water
  • Food—rarely

Most homes built before 1960 contain some lead-based paint. This was banned from residential use in 1978. Dust containing lead can linger on windowsills and in window wells. Drinking water that travels through lead pipes, or through pipes with lead-based soldering, may also be contaminated. Lead can become mixed with dirt after it peels from paint on building exteriors. Industrial sources and car exhaust also contribute to the problem. Lead levels in the air have dropped a lot since lead additives were banned from gasoline in the 1970s. Food produced outside of the United States can be contaminated if packaged in lead-soldered cans.

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Risk Factors  

Factors that increase your child's risk for lead poisoning include:

  • Age: 6 or younger
  • Ingesting non-food items, also known as pica—a behavior in most young children and some children with neurodevelopmental disorders
  • Living in a house or apartment built before 1960
  • Living in neighborhoods where homes were built before 1960
  • Living in a home with adults whose work or hobbies put them in contact with lead
  • Receiving transfusions from adults who have relatively high lead levels in the blood. This is a special risk for very small infants receiving newborn intensive care.
  • Being born to a mother who has high levels of lead stored in her bones. Pregnancy often causes this lead to move from the bones to the bloodstream. It may cross the placenta and affect a developing baby.
  • Breast milk may also contain lead. Nursing mothers who live in houses with lead hazards may transmit lead to their babies through breastfeeding .
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Symptoms  

Children with lead poisoning often show no symptoms. However, the toxic metal can negatively affect nearly every system in the body.

One of the most serious concerns is lead's harmful effect on the neurological system. For every 10 mcg/dL increase in blood lead levels, there is a 2-3 point decline in IQ test scores. Lead poisoning is also associated with neurodevelopment problems, such as:

Other possible signs of lead poisoning include:

  • Headache
  • Pain or numbness in the extremities
  • Muscle weakness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Loss of appetite, abdominal pain
  • Impaired hearing
  • Memory loss
  • Fatigue
  • Sleep disturbances
  • Mood disorders
  • Dental and bone abnormalities
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Diagnosis  

The doctor will ask about your child's symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Lead poisoning is diagnosed with a blood test.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that children at high risk for lead poisoning have their blood levels tested. This should be done until the age of three for all children and until the age of four to five in areas of high risk. High-risk children are defined as those receiving Medicaid and those who live in high-areas. These include areas where 27% or more of housing units were built before 1950. Or, in which at least 12% of tested children have elevated lead levels. Testing is also indicated if a sibling has had lead poisoning or a parent has contact with lead through work or hobbies. For other children, the CDC recommends that each state develop its own testing plan. Each plan will be based on local experience with lead poisoning.I think we do it up to 3 in everybody and up to 4-5 in areas of high risk as you listed above.

If your child has lead levels higher than 10 mcg/dL of blood, seek immediate medical treatment.

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Treatment  

Treatment depends on the severity of lead poisoning.

Treatment may include:

Environmental Controls  

If your child has mild-to-moderate lead poisoning (20-44 mcg/dL), medication may not be prescribed. Doctors will work with social workers and public health officials to eliminate lead at home and at school. They then carefully monitor blood levels until the lead naturally works its way out of your child's system.

Medications  

If your child has moderate to severe lead poisoning (45-69 mcg/dL), medication will be needed. Medications may include oral or IV chelating agents that bind to lead and speed its removal from your child's body through urine. Blood levels above 70 mcg/dL are considered acute cases. Hospitalization and emergency medical treatment are necessary.