(Z-E Syndrome; Gastrinoma)
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder that arises from tumors and ulcers in the digestive system. One or more tumors form in the pancreas or duodenum (the upper part of the small intestine). These tumors, called gastrinomas, produce a large amount of gastrin. Gastrin is a hormone that causes the stomach to produce acid. With too much gastrin, excess acid is produced, causing ulcers in the stomach or small intestine.
Gastrinomas occur as single tumors or small multiple tumors. Not only can these tumors lead to ulcers, they can also be cancerous (up to 66% malignant) and spread to the nearby lymph nodes or liver. This happens in about one-third to one-half of the cases of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.
About one-quarter of people with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome have a genetic disorder called multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1). Patients with MEN 1 have additional endocrine tumors in the brain and neck.
The cause of Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is unclear. It is very rare; fewer than three out of a million people have the syndrome.