Paul Witkovsky

Biosketch / Results /

Paul Witkovsky, Ph.D.

Professor Emeritus of Ophthalmology; Research Professor;
Departments of Ophthalmology (Resident Train ) and Neuroscience and Physiology (Neuro/Phys)

Contact Info

Address
455 First Avenue
Floor 8 Room 857
Public Health Lab
New York , NY 10016

212-263-6488
212-263-7602
Paul.Witkovsky2@nyumc.org

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Education

1962 — Dr. Witkovsky received his Ph.D. in General Physiology from the University of California at Los Angeles, Graduate Education
1962-1963 — Dr. Witkovsky completed his postdoctoral training in Neurobiology at the Venezuela Institute of Scientific Investigation, PostDoctoral Training

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Research Summary

The retina functions over an enormous range of stimulus intensities from dim starlight to bright sunlight. Rod photoreceptors mediate dim light vision, while cones subserve daytime vision. Dopamine, an intrinsic retinal neurochemical, alters retinal information processing by increasing the activity of cone circuits, while suppressing that of rods. The studies of our laboratory are directed at uncovering the cellular mechanisms of dopamine's actions. We showed that the release of dopamine is increased by light and suppressed by prolonged darkness. Dopamine, acting through a D1 receptor coupled to a cAMP-dependent pathway, increases the postsynaptic efficacy of glutamate at the junction between cones and second order retinal neurons. We demonstrated that dopamine also alters the permeability of gap junctions between rod and cone photoreceptors, a mechanism dependent on a D2 dopamine receptor. We also showed that dopamine is one of a host of modulators that alter the properties of intrinsic time- and voltage-dependent currents in retinal neurons. Presently, we are investigating the process of glutamate release by photoreceptors and its dependence on light, voltage, and calcium and exploring the possibility that dopamine can modulate glutamate release. Our overall conclusion is that dopamine is a chemical messenger for light adaptation and it acts through multiple cellular mechanisms.

Research Interests

Dopamine-Induced Modulation of Retinal Function

Research Keywords

cone photoreceptors, dopamine, glutamate horizontal cell, retina, rod photoreceptors, Xenopus

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All data from NYU Health Sciences Library Faculty Bibliography — -

Contact:
http://hsl.med.nyu.edu/faculty-bibliography-search

TRPM2 Channels Are Required for NMDA-Induced Burst Firing and Contribute to H2O2-Dependent Modulation in Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata GABAergic Neurons
Lee, Christian R; Machold, Robert P; Witkovsky, Paul; Rice, Margaret E
2013 Jan;33(3):1157-1168, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 213462, year: 2013, vol: 33, page: 1157, stat: Journal Article,

Phase waves in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (commentary on Hong et al.)
Silver, Rae; Witkovsky, Paul
2012 May;35(9):1416-1416, European journal of neuroscience
— id: 902322, year: 2012, vol: 35, page: 1416, stat: Journal Article,

Regulation of Substantia Nigra Pars Reticulata GABAergic Neuron Activity by H(2)O(2) via Flufenamic Acid-Sensitive Channels and K(ATP) Channels
Lee, Christian R; Witkovsky, Paul; Rice, Margaret E
2011 ;5:14-14, Frontiers in systems neuroscience
— id: 131804, year: 2011, vol: 5, page: 14, stat: Journal Article,

Light exposure induces short- and long-term changes in the excitability of retinorecipient neurons in suprachiasmatic nucleus
LeSauter, Joseph; Silver, Rae; Cloues, Robin; Witkovsky, Paul
2011 Aug;106(2):576-588, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 137872, year: 2011, vol: 106, page: 576, stat: Journal Article,

Subsecond regulation of striatal dopamine release by pre-synaptic K(ATP) channels
Patel, Jyoti C; Witkovsky, Paul; Coetzee, William A; Rice, Margaret E
2011 Sep;118(5):721-736, Journal of neurochemistry
— id: 136636, year: 2011, vol: 118, page: 721, stat: Journal Article,

The Polymodal Ion Channel Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 Modulates Calcium Flux, Spiking Rate, and Apoptosis of Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells
Ryskamp DA; Witkovsky P; Barabas P; Huang W; Koehler C; Akimov NP; Lee SH; Chauhan S; Xing W; Renteria RC; Liedtke W; Krizaj D
2011 May 11;31(19):7089-7101, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 134279, year: 2011, vol: 31, page: 7089, stat: Journal Article,

beta-Endorphin expression in the mouse retina
Gallagher, Shannon K; Witkovsky, Paul; Roux, Michel J; Low, Malcolm J; Otero-Corchon, Veronica; Hentges, Shane T; Vigh, Jozsef
2010 Aug;518(15):3130-3148, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163174, year: 2010, vol: 518, page: 3130, stat: Journal Article,

Mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores facilitates somatodendritic dopamine release
Patel, Jyoti C; Witkovsky, Paul; Avshalumov, Marat V; Rice, Margaret E
2009 May 20;29(20):6568-6579, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 99027, year: 2009, vol: 29, page: 6568, stat: Journal Article,

Immunocytochemical identification of proteins involved in dopamine release from the somatodendritic compartment of nigral dopaminergic neurons
Witkovsky, P; Patel, J C; Lee, C R; Rice, M E
2009 Dec 1;164(2):488-496, Neuroscience
— id: 101614, year: 2009, vol: 164, page: 488, stat: Journal Article,

Targeted mutation of the calbindin D28K gene disrupts circadian rhythmicity and entrainment
Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Mei, Dan Feng; Yan, Lily; Witkovsky, Paul; Lesauter, Joseph; Hamada, Toshiyuki; Silver, Rae
2008 Jun;27(11):2907-2921, European journal of neuroscience
— id: 97077, year: 2008, vol: 27, page: 2907, stat: Journal Article,

Anatomical and neurochemical characterization of dopaminergic interplexiform processes in mouse and rat retinas
Witkovsky, Paul; Gabriel, Robert; Krizaj, David
2008 Sep 10;510(2):158-174, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 86651, year: 2008, vol: 510, page: 158, stat: Journal Article,

Laminin deficits induce alterations in the development of dopaminergic neurons in the mouse retina
Denes, Viktoria; Witkovsky, Paul; Koch, Manuel; Hunter, Dale D; Pinzon-Duarte, German; Brunken, William J
2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):549-562, Visual neuroscience
— id: 97078, year: 2007, vol: 24, page: 549, stat: Journal Article,

Cellular localization and function of DARPP-32 in the rodent retina
Witkovsky, Paul; Svenningsson, Per; Yan, Lily; Bateup, Helen; Silver, Rae
2007 Jun;25(11):3233-3242, European journal of neuroscience
— id: 73412, year: 2007, vol: 25, page: 3233, stat: Journal Article,

Differential distribution of voltage-gated calcium channels in dopaminergic neurons of the rat retina
Witkovsky, Paul; Shen, Changpeng; McRory, John
2006 Jul 20;497(3):384-396, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 66697, year: 2006, vol: 497, page: 384, stat: Journal Article,

Circuits and properties of signal transmission in the retina
Witkovsky, Paul; Stell, William K; Ishida, Andrew T
2006 Aug;96(2):509-511, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 69060, year: 2006, vol: 96, page: 509, stat: Journal Article,

Synaptic transmission at retinal ribbon synapses
Heidelberger, Ruth; Thoreson, Wallace B; Witkovsky, Paul
2005 Nov;24(6):682-720, Progress in retinal & eye research
— id: 97079, year: 2005, vol: 24, page: 682, stat: Journal Article,

Rat retinal dopaminergic neurons: differential maturation of somatodendritic and axonal compartments
Witkovsky, Paul; Arango-Gonzalez, Blanca; Haycock, John W; Kohler, Konrad
2005 Jan 24;481(4):352-362, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 54104, year: 2005, vol: 481, page: 352, stat: Journal Article,

AII amacrine neurons of the rat retina show diurnal and circadian rhythms of parvalbumin immunoreactivity
Gabriel, Robert; Lesauter, Joseph; Banvolgyi, Tamas; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Silver, Rae; Witkovsky, Paul
2004 Feb;315(2):181-186, Cell & tissue research
— id: 67479, year: 2004, vol: 315, page: 181, stat: Journal Article,

Neurotransmitter actions on transient amacrine and ganglion cells of the turtle retina
Vigh, Jozsef; Witkovsky, Paul
2004 Jan-Feb;21(1):1-11, Visual neuroscience
— id: 97080, year: 2004, vol: 21, page: 1, stat: Journal Article,

Dopamine and retinal function
Witkovsky, Paul
2004 Feb;108(1):17-40, Documenta ophthalmologica
— id: 46198, year: 2004, vol: 108, page: 17, stat: Journal Article,

Activity-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neurons of the rat retina
Witkovsky, Paul; Veisenberger, Eleonora; Haycock, John W; Akopian, Abram; Garcia-Espana, Antonio; Meller, Emanuel
2004 May 28;24(17):4242-4249, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 45999, year: 2004, vol: 24, page: 4242, stat: Journal Article,

Kinetics of synaptic transfer from rods and cones to horizontal cells in the salamander retina
Thoreson, W B; Tranchina, D; Witkovsky, P
2003 ;122(3):785-798, Neuroscience
— id: 163175, year: 2003, vol: 122, page: 785, stat: Journal Article,

Cellular location and circadian rhythm of expression of the biological clock gene Period 1 in the mouse retina
Witkovsky, Paul; Veisenberger, Eleonora; LeSauter, Joseph; Yan, Lily; Johnson, Madeleine; Zhang, Dao-Qi; McMahon, Douglas; Silver, Rae
2003 Aug 20;23(20):7670-7676, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 39102, year: 2003, vol: 23, page: 7670, stat: Journal Article,

Calcium and retinal function
Akopian, Abram; Witkovsky, Paul
2002 Apr;25(2):113-132, Molecular neurobiology
— id: 39683, year: 2002, vol: 25, page: 113, stat: Journal Article,

Association of the AMPA receptor-related postsynaptic density proteins GRIP and ABP with subsets of glutamate-sensitive neurons in the rat retina
Gabriel, Robert; de Souza, Sunita; Ziff, Edward B; Witkovsky, Paul
2002 Jul 22;449(2):129-140, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 35233, year: 2002, vol: 449, page: 129, stat: Journal Article,

NMDA RECEPTORS ACTIVATION REGULATE NOS PHOSPHORYLATION AND APOPTOTIC NEURON DEATH. G.A. RAMEAU*, P. WITKOVSKY, L. CHIU AND E. B. ZIFF. HHMI, DEPT. OF BIOCHEMISTRY, NYU SCH. OF MED., NEW YORK, NY 10016
Rameau, G. A.; Witkovsky, P.; Chiu, L.; Ziff, E. B.
2002 ;2002:?-?, Society for Neuroscience Abstract Viewer & Itinerary Planner
— id: 92630, year: 2002, vol: 2002, page: ?, stat: Journal Article,

D2-like dopamine receptors promote interactions between calcium and chloride channels that diminish rod synaptic transfer in the salamander retina
Thoreson, Wallace B; Stella, Salvatore L Jr; Bryson, Eric I; Clements, John; Witkovsky, Paul
2002 May-Jun;19(3):235-247, Visual neuroscience
— id: 97081, year: 2002, vol: 19, page: 235, stat: Journal Article,

PACAP-immunoreactive neurons in the mouse retina
Veisenberger, E; Silver, R; LeSauter, J; Witkovsky, P
2002 MAY ;43(3):U648-U648, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 55497, year: 2002, vol: 43, page: U648, stat: Journal Article,

Intracellular calcium reduces light-induced excitatory post-synaptic responses in salamander retinal ganglion cells
Akopian A; Witkovsky P
2001 Apr 1;532(Pt 1):43-53, Journal of physiology
— id: 26758, year: 2001, vol: 532, page: 43, stat: Journal Article,

Diurnal and circadian variation of protein kinase C immunoreactivity in the rat retina
Gabriel, R; Lesauter, J; Silver, R; Garcia-Espana, A; Witkovsky, P
2001 Oct 15;439(2):140-150, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 67480, year: 2001, vol: 439, page: 140, stat: Journal Article,

Association of AMPA receptor sub-units GluR2/3 with two AMPA receptor-specific proteins, GRIP and ABP, in rat retinal neurons
Gabriel, R; Witkovsky, P; Ziff, E; deSouza, S
2001 MAR 15 ;42(4):S728-S728, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 54988, year: 2001, vol: 42, page: S728, stat: Journal Article,

Contributions of AMPA- and kainate-sensitive receptors to the photopic electroretinogram of the Xenopus retina
Szikra, T; Witkovsky, P
2001 Mar-Apr;18(2):187-196, Visual neuroscience
— id: 163176, year: 2001, vol: 18, page: 187, stat: Journal Article,

Transmission at the photoreceptor synapse
Witkovsky P; Thoreson W; Tranchina D
2001 ;131(2):145-159, Progress in brain research
— id: 21170, year: 2001, vol: 131, page: 145, stat: Journal Article,

Diurnal and circadian rhythms of Protein Kinase C expression in rat retina
Witkovsky, P; Gabriel, R; LeSauter, J; Garcia-Espana, T; Silver, R
2001 MAR 15 ;42(4):S716-S716, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 54987, year: 2001, vol: 42, page: S716, stat: Journal Article,

Somatostatin modulates voltage-gated K(+) and Ca(2+) currents in rod and cone photoreceptors of the salamander retina
Akopian A; Johnson J; Gabriel R; Brecha N; Witkovsky P
2000 Feb 1;20(3):929-936, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 11856, year: 2000, vol: 20, page: 929, stat: Journal Article,

Relationship between intracellular Ca2+ and light-evoked EPSCs in retinal ganglion cells
Akopian, A; Witkovsky, P
2000 MAR 15 ;41(4):S935-S935, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 54625, year: 2000, vol: 41, page: S935, stat: Journal Article,

Effects of glutamate-related ligands on the electroretinogram (ERG) of the Xenopus retina
Szikra, T; Akopian, A; Witkovsky, P
2000 NOV ;12(11):486-486, European journal of neuroscience
— id: 54454, year: 2000, vol: 12, page: 486, stat: Journal Article,

Photoreceptor classes and transmission at the photoreceptor synapse in the retina of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis
Witkovsky P
2000 Sep 1;50(5):338-346, Microscopy research & technique
— id: 11552, year: 2000, vol: 50, page: 338, stat: Journal Article,

Influence of light and neural circuitry on tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation in the rat retina
Witkovsky P; Gabriel R; Haycock JW; Meller E
2000 Jun;19(2):105-116, Journal of chemical neuroanatomy
— id: 11558, year: 2000, vol: 19, page: 105, stat: Journal Article,

Effects of kainate-related agonists on a-, b- and d-waves of the amphibian electroretinogram
Witkovsky, P; Szikra, T
2000 MAR 15 ;41(4):S889-S889, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 54623, year: 2000, vol: 41, page: S889, stat: Journal Article,

Caffeine-sensitive calcium stores regulate synaptic transmission from retinal rod photoreceptors
Krizaj, D; Bao, J X; Schmitz, Y; Witkovsky, P; Copenhagen, D R
1999 Sep;19(17):7249-7261, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 163178, year: 1999, vol: 19, page: 7249, stat: Journal Article,

Glutamate receptors and circuits in the vertebrate retina
Thoreson, W B; Witkovsky, P
1999 Nov;18(6):765-810, Progress in retinal & eye research
— id: 163177, year: 1999, vol: 18, page: 765, stat: Journal Article,

Sub-millimolar cobalt selectively inhibits the receptive field surround of retinal neurons
Vigh J; Witkovsky P
1999 Jan-Feb;16(1):159-168, Visual neuroscience
— id: 7462, year: 1999, vol: 16, page: 159, stat: Journal Article,

Calcium released from intracellular stores inhibits GABAA-mediated currents in ganglion cells of the turtle retina
Akopian A; Gabriel R; Witkovsky P
1998 Sep;80(3):1105-1115, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 12072, year: 1998, vol: 80, page: 1105, stat: Journal Article,

Cholinergic, but not the rod pathway-related glycinergic (All), amacrine cells contain calretinin in the rat retina
Gabriel R; Witkovsky P
1998 May 15;247(2-3):179-182, Neuroscience letters
— id: 8030, year: 1998, vol: 247, page: 179, stat: Journal Article,

Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated modulation of rod-cone coupling in the Xenopus retina
Krizaj D; Gabriel R; Owen WG; Witkovsky P
1998 Sep 7;398(4):529-538, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 57185, year: 1998, vol: 398, page: 529, stat: Journal Article,

Both high- and low voltage-activated calcium currents contribute to the light-evoked responses of luminosity horizontal cells in the Xenopus retina
Akopian A; Krizaj D; Witkovsky P
1997 Jul 11;762(1-2):121-130, Brain research
— id: 56919, year: 1997, vol: 762, page: 121, stat: Journal Article,

Intracellular calcium induces inactivation of A-current in fish retinal horizontal cells
Akopian, A; Witkovsky, P
1997 MAR 15 ;38(4):2875-2875, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 53238, year: 1997, vol: 38, page: 2875, stat: Journal Article,

Modulation of photoreceptor glutamate release by glutamate uptake blockers and dopamine
Schmilz, Y; Witkovsky, P
1997 ;38(4):-, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 589832, year: 1997, vol: 38, page: , stat: Journal Article,

Dependence of photoreceptor glutamate release on a dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel
Schmitz Y; Witkovsky P
1997 Jun;78(4):1209-1216, Neuroscience
— id: 56989, year: 1997, vol: 78, page: 1209, stat: Journal Article,

Modulation of photoreceptor glutamate release by glutamate uptake blockers and dopamine
Schmitz, Y; Witkovsky, P
1997 MAR 15 ;38(4):2863-2863, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 53237, year: 1997, vol: 38, page: 2863, stat: Journal Article,

Gain of rod to horizontal cell synaptic transfer: relation to glutamate release and a dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium current
Witkovsky P; Schmitz Y; Akopian A; Krizaj D; Tranchina D
1997 Oct 1;17(19):7297-7306, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 7283, year: 1997, vol: 17, page: 7297, stat: Journal Article,

Dopaminergic mechanisms in the outer retina
Witkovsky, P
1997 MAR 15 ;38(4):20-20, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 53227, year: 1997, vol: 38, page: 20, stat: Journal Article,

Activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors decreases a high-threshold calcium current in spiking neurons of the Xenopus retina
Akopian A; Witkovsky P
1996 May-Jun;13(3):549-557, Visual neuroscience
— id: 12605, year: 1996, vol: 13, page: 549, stat: Journal Article,

D2 dopamine receptor-mediated inhibition of a hyperpolarization-activated current in rod photoreceptors
Akopian A; Witkovsky P
1996 Sep;76(3):1828-1835, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 12548, year: 1996, vol: 76, page: 1828, stat: Journal Article,

D2 dopamine receptor modulates hyperpolarization activated current in xenopus rods: A role for [Ca]
Akopian, A; Witkovsky, P
1996 FEB 15 ;37(3):24-24, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 53018, year: 1996, vol: 37, page: 24, stat: Journal Article,

Glutamate release by the intact light-responsive photoreceptor layer of the Xenopus retina
Schmitz Y; Witkovsky P
1996 Sep;68(1):55-60, Journal of neuroscience methods
— id: 12552, year: 1996, vol: 68, page: 55, stat: Journal Article,

Calcium-dependence of glutamate release by the photoreceptor layer of the Xenopus retina
Schmitz, Y; Witkovsky, P
1996 FEB 15 ;37(3):2913-2913, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 53026, year: 1996, vol: 37, page: 2913, stat: Journal Article,

Modulation of rod-cone coupling in the Xenopus retina
Witkovsky, P; Gabriel, R; Krizaj, D
1996 FEB 15 ;37(3):3096-3096, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 53028, year: 1996, vol: 37, page: 3096, stat: Journal Article,

DOPAMINE MODULATES DISTINCT HYPERPOLARIZATION-ACTIVATED CURRENTS IN RODS AND GLIAL-CELLS
AKOPIAN, A; WITKOVSKY, P
1995 MAR 15 ;36(4):S289-S289, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 87332, year: 1995, vol: 36, page: S289, stat: Journal Article,

Feedback from luminosity horizontal cells mediates depolarizing responses of chromaticity horizontal cells in the Xenopus retina
Witkovsky P; Gabriel R; Krizaj D; Akopian A
1995 Apr 11;92(8):3556-3560, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 56728, year: 1995, vol: 92, page: 3556, stat: Journal Article,

Modulation of transient outward potassium current by GTP, calcium, and glutamate in horizontal cells of the Xenopus retina
Akopian A; Witkovsky P
1994 May;71(5):1661-1671, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 12975, year: 1994, vol: 71, page: 1661, stat: Journal Article,

The effects of L-glutamate, AMPA, quisqualate, and kainate on retinal horizontal cells depend on adaptational state: implications for rod-cone interactions
Krizaj D; Akopian A; Witkovsky P
1994 Sep;14(9):5661-5671, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 8332, year: 1994, vol: 14, page: 5661, stat: Journal Article,

Dopaminergic neurons in the retina of Xenopus laevis: amacrine vs. interplexiform subtypes and relation to bipolar cells
Witkovsky P; Zhang J; Blam O
1994 Oct;278(1):45-56, Cell & tissue research
— id: 12883, year: 1994, vol: 278, page: 45, stat: Journal Article,

Identification of cone classes in Xenopus retina by immunocytochemistry and staining with lectins and vital dyes
Zhang J; Kleinschmidt J; Sun P; Witkovsky P
1994 Nov-Dec;11(6):1185-1192, Visual neuroscience
— id: 6789, year: 1994, vol: 11, page: 1185, stat: Journal Article,

Effects of submicromolar concentrations of dopamine on photoreceptor to horizontal cell communication
Krizaj D; Witkovsky P
1993 Nov 5;627(1):122-128, Brain research
— id: 56552, year: 1993, vol: 627, page: 122, stat: Journal Article,

Extracellular dopamine concentration in the retina of the clawed frog, Xenopus laevis
Witkovsky P; Nicholson C; Rice ME; Bohmaker K; Meller E
1993 Jun 15;90(12):5667-5671, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 13131, year: 1993, vol: 90, page: 5667, stat: Journal Article,

Light-evoked contraction of red absorbing cones in the Xenopus retina is maximally sensitive to green light
Besharse, J C; Witkovsky, P
1992 Mar;8(3):243-249, Visual neuroscience
— id: 163180, year: 1992, vol: 8, page: 243, stat: Journal Article,

Membrane currents of horizontal cells isolated from turtle retina
Golard, A; Witkovsky, P; Tranchina, D
1992 Aug;68(2):351-361, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 163179, year: 1992, vol: 68, page: 351, stat: Journal Article,

The calcium current of turtle cone photoreceptor axon terminals
Lasater, E M; Witkovsky, P
1991 ;15:S165-S173, Neuroscience research. Supplement
— id: 163181, year: 1991, vol: 15, page: S165, stat: Journal Article,

Dopaminergic interplexiform cells and centrifugal fibres in the Xenopus retina
Schutte M; Witkovsky P
1991 Mar;20(3):195-207, Journal of neurocytology
— id: 14127, year: 1991, vol: 20, page: 195, stat: Journal Article,

CATECHOLAMINERGIC FIBERS INNERVATE THE RETINAL-PIGMENT EPITHELIUM, CHOROID, SCLERA AND CILIARY BODY IN THE TURTLES EYE
SCHUTTE, M; WITKOVSKY, P
1991 MAR 15 ;32(4):1259-1259, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 51689, year: 1991, vol: 32, page: 1259, stat: Journal Article,

The organization of dopaminergic neurons in vertebrate retinas
Witkovsky P; Schutte M
1991 Jul-Aug;7(1-2):113-124, Visual neuroscience
— id: 13972, year: 1991, vol: 7, page: 113, stat: Journal Article,

FUNCTIONAL ROLES OF DOPAMINE IN THE VERTEBRATE RETINA
WITKOVSKY, P; DEARRY, A
1991 MAR ;11(1):247-292, Progress in retinal research
— id: 52063, year: 1991, vol: 11, page: 247, stat: Journal Article,

Membrane currents of spiking cells isolated from turtle retina
Lasater, E M; Witkovsky, P
1990 May;167(1):11-21, Journal of comparative physiology. A. Sensory neural & behavioral physiology
— id: 163184, year: 1990, vol: 167, page: 11, stat: Journal Article,

Serotonin-like immunoreactivity in the retina of the clawed frog Xenopus laevis
Schutte, M; Witkovsky, P
1990 Aug;19(4):504-518, Journal of neurocytology
— id: 163183, year: 1990, vol: 19, page: 504, stat: Journal Article,

A chromatic horizontal cell in the Xenopus retina: intracellular staining and synaptic pharmacology
Stone S; Witkovsky P; Schutte M
1990 Dec;64(6):1683-1694, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 14273, year: 1990, vol: 64, page: 1683, stat: Journal Article,

Slow light and dark adaptation of horizontal cells in the Xenopus retina: a role for endogenous dopamine
Witkovsky, P; Shi, X P
1990 Oct;5(4):405-413, Visual neuroscience
— id: 163182, year: 1990, vol: 5, page: 405, stat: Journal Article,

Involvement of D1 and D2 Dopamine Receptors in the Control of Horizontal Cell Electrical Coupling in the Turtle Retina
Piccolino M; Demontis G; Witkovsky P; Strettoi E; Cappagli GC; Porceddu ML; De Montis MG; Pepitoni S; Biggio G; Meller E; Bohmaker K
1989 May;1(3):247-257, European journal of neuroscience
— id: 63176, year: 1989, vol: 1, page: 247, stat: Journal Article,

Photoreceptor to horizontal cell synaptic transfer in the Xenopus retina: modulation by dopamine ligands and a circuit model for interactions of rod and cone inputs
Witkovsky P; Stone S; Tranchina D
1989 Oct;62(4):864-881, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 10485, year: 1989, vol: 62, page: 864, stat: Journal Article,

GABA release from Xenopus retina does not correlate with horizontal cell membrane potential
Cunningham, J R; Neal, M J; Stone, S; Witkovsky, P
1988 Jan;24(1):39-48, Neuroscience
— id: 163185, year: 1988, vol: 24, page: 39, stat: Journal Article,

Coexpression of opsin- and VIP-like-immunoreactivity in CSF-contacting neurons of the avian brain
Silver, R; Witkovsky, P; Horvath, P; Alones, V; Barnstable, C J; Lehman, M N
1988 Jul;253(1):189-198, Cell & tissue research
— id: 67481, year: 1988, vol: 253, page: 189, stat: Journal Article,

Dopamine modifies the balance of rod and cone inputs to horizontal cells of the Xenopus retina
Witkovsky P; Stone S; Besharse JC
1988 May 24;449(1-2):332-336, Brain research
— id: 11089, year: 1988, vol: 449, page: 332, stat: Journal Article,

Morphology and synaptic connections of HRP-filled, axon-bearing horizontal cells in the Xenopus retina
Witkovsky P; Stone S; MacDonald ED
1988 Sep 1;275(1):29-38, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 63145, year: 1988, vol: 275, page: 29, stat: Journal Article,

THE EFFECTS OF DOPAMINE AND RELATED LIGANDS ON PHOTORECEPTOR TO HORIZONTAL CELL TRANSFER IN THE XENOPUS RETINA
Witkovsky, P; Stone, S; Besharse, JC
1988 Jan;9(1):93-107, Biomedical research (Tokyo)
— id: 31649, year: 1988, vol: 9, page: 93, stat: Journal Article,

Evidence for gluconeogenesis in the amphibian retina
Goldman, S S; Witkovsky, P
1987 Jan;44(1):65-71, Experimental eye research
— id: 124072, year: 1987, vol: 44, page: 65, stat: Journal Article,

Dopaminergic mechanisms underlying the reduction of electrical coupling between horizontal cells of the turtle retina induced by d-amphetamine, bicuculline, and veratridine
Piccolino, M; Witkovsky, P; Trimarchi, C
1987 Aug;7(8):2273-2284, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 163186, year: 1987, vol: 7, page: 2273, stat: Journal Article,

Center-surround organization of Xenopus horizontal cells and its modification by gamma-aminobutyric acid and strontium
Stone S; Witkovsky P
1987 ;47(1):1-12, Experimental biology
— id: 11404, year: 1987, vol: 47, page: 1, stat: Journal Article,

GABA and glycine modify the balance of rod and cone inputs to horizontal cells in the Xenopus retina
Witkovsky P; Stone S
1987 ;47(1):13-22, Experimental biology
— id: 11403, year: 1987, vol: 47, page: 13, stat: Journal Article,

Morphological changes induced in turtle retinal neurons by exposure to 6-hydroxydopamine and 5,6-dihydroxytryptamine
Witkovsky, P; Alones, V; Piccolino, M
1987 Feb;16(1):55-67, Journal of neurocytology
— id: 163187, year: 1987, vol: 16, page: 55, stat: Journal Article,

Retinal neurochemistry of three elasmobranch species: an immunohistochemical approach
Brunken, W J; Witkovsky, P; Karten, H J
1986 Jan;243(1):1-12, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163188, year: 1986, vol: 243, page: 1, stat: Journal Article,

Glycogen metabolism in an amphibian retina
Goldman, S S; Witkovsky, P
1986 Aug;43(2):267-272, Experimental eye research
— id: 124071, year: 1986, vol: 43, page: 267, stat: Journal Article,

Pharmacological modification of the light-induced responses of Muller (glial) cells in the amphibian retina
Witkovsky, P; Stone, S; Ripps, H
1985 Feb;328(1):111-120, Brain research
— id: 163171, year: 1985, vol: 328, page: 111, stat: Journal Article,

The actions of gamma-aminobutyric acid, glycine and their antagonists upon horizontal cells of the Xenopus retina
Stone, S; Witkovsky, P
1984 Aug;353:249-264, Journal of physiology
— id: 163190, year: 1984, vol: 353, page: 249, stat: Journal Article,

Catecholamine- and indoleamine-containing neurons in the turtle retina
Witkovsky, P; Eldred, W; Karten, H J
1984 Sep;228(2):217-225, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163189, year: 1984, vol: 228, page: 217, stat: Journal Article,

Intracellular recording from identified photoreceptors and horizontal cells of the Xenopus retina
Hassin G; Witkovsky P
1983 ;23(10):921-931, Vision research
— id: 63174, year: 1983, vol: 23, page: 921, stat: Journal Article,

Retinal hexokinase: kinetic properties and the effect of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate
Liu, S S; Witkovsky, P; Yang, C Y
1983 Dec;41(6):1694-1701, Journal of neurochemistry
— id: 163191, year: 1983, vol: 41, page: 1694, stat: Journal Article,

Gap junctions among the perikarya, dendrites, and axon terminals of the luminosity-type horizontal cell of the turtle retina
Witkovsky, P; Owen, W G; Woodworth, M
1983 Jun;216(4):359-368, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163192, year: 1983, vol: 216, page: 359, stat: Journal Article,

Rod and cone inputs to bipolar and horizontal cells of the Xenopus retina
Witkovsky, P; Stone, S
1983 ;23(11):1251-1258, Vision research
— id: 163193, year: 1983, vol: 23, page: 1251, stat: Journal Article,

Blue-sensitive rod input to bipolar and ganglion cells of the Xenopus retina
Yang, C Y; Hassin, G; Witkovsky, P
1983 ;23(10):933-941, Vision research
— id: 163194, year: 1983, vol: 23, page: 933, stat: Journal Article,

L-HORIZONTAL CELLS OF THE TURTLE - NETWORK ORGANIZATION AND COUPLING MODULATION
GERSCHENFELD, HM; NEYTON, J; PICCOLINO, M; WITKOVSKY, P
1982 ;3(1-2):21-34, Biomedical research (Tokyo)
— id: 40565, year: 1982, vol: 3, page: 21, stat: Journal Article,

gamma-Aminobutyric acid antagonists decrease junctional communication between L-horizontal cells of the retina
Piccolino, M; Neyton, J; Witkovsky, P; Gerschenfeld, H M
1982 Jun;79(11):3671-3675, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 163196, year: 1982, vol: 79, page: 3671, stat: Journal Article,

Uptake and localization of 3H-2 deoxy-D-glucose by retinal photoreceptors
Witkovsky P; Yang CY
1982 Jan 10;204(2):105-116, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 63226, year: 1982, vol: 204, page: 105, stat: Journal Article,

Transport and phosphorylation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose by amphibian retina. Effects of light and darkness
Witkovsky, P; Yang, C Y
1982 Aug;80(2):173-190, Journal of general physiology
— id: 163195, year: 1982, vol: 80, page: 173, stat: Journal Article,

A freeze-fracture study of synaptogenesis in the distal retina of larval Xenopus
Nagy AR; Witkovsky P
1981 Dec;10(6):897-919, Journal of neurocytology
— id: 63148, year: 1981, vol: 10, page: 897, stat: Journal Article,

A microspectrophotometric study of normal and artificial visual pigments in the photoreceptors of Xenopus laevis
Witkovsky, P; Levine, J S; Engbretson, G A; Hassin, G; MacNichol, E F Jr
1981 ;21(6):867-873, Vision research
— id: 163197, year: 1981, vol: 21, page: 867, stat: Journal Article,

Synapse formation and modification between distal retinal neurons in larval and juvenile Xenopus
Witkovsky, P; Powell, C C
1981 Mar 11;211(1184):373-389, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a biological character
— id: 133296, year: 1981, vol: 211, page: 373, stat: Journal Article,

Properties of a blue-sensitive rod in the Xenopus retina
Witkovsky, P; Yang, C Y; Ripps, H
1981 ;21(6):875-883, Vision research
— id: 163172, year: 1981, vol: 21, page: 875, stat: Journal Article,

Excitation and adaptation in the vertebrate retina
Witkovsky, P
1980 ;2:1-66, Current topics in eye research
— id: 163198, year: 1980, vol: 2, page: 1, stat: Journal Article,

Some aspects of the organization of the optic tectum of the skate Raja
Witkovsky, P; Powell, C C; Brunken, W J
1980 ;5(11):1989-2002, Neuroscience
— id: 133298, year: 1980, vol: 5, page: 1989, stat: Journal Article,

The threshold versus pigment relation of Xenopus rods
Engbretson, G A; Hassin, G; Witkovsky, P
1979 ;19(4):367-373, Vision research
— id: 163200, year: 1979, vol: 19, page: 367, stat: Journal Article,

Synaptic connections linking cones and horizontal cells in the retina of the pikeperch (Stizostedion vitreum)
Witkovsky, P; Burkhardt, D A; Nagy, A R
1979 Aug;186(4):541-559, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163199, year: 1979, vol: 186, page: 541, stat: Journal Article,

The formation of photoreceptor synapses in the retina of larval Xenopus
Chen, F; Witkovsky, P
1978 Dec;7(6):721-740, Journal of neurocytology
— id: 163202, year: 1978, vol: 7, page: 721, stat: Journal Article,

Rod sensitivity and visual pigment concentration in Xenopus
Engbretson, G A; Witkovsky, P
1978 Dec;72(6):801-819, Journal of general physiology
— id: 163201, year: 1978, vol: 72, page: 801, stat: Journal Article,

Formation, conversion, and utilization of isorhodopsin, rhodopsin, and porphyropsin by rod photoreceptors in the Xenopus retina
Witkovsky P; Engbretson GA; Ripps H
1978 Dec;72(6):821-836, Journal of general physiology
— id: 63179, year: 1978, vol: 72, page: 821, stat: Journal Article,

The visual pigment and vitamin A of Xenopus laevis embryos, larvae and adults
Bridges, C D; Hollyfield, J G; Witkovsky, P; Gallin, E
1977 Jan;24(1):7-13, Experimental eye research
— id: 120070, year: 1977, vol: 24, page: 7, stat: Journal Article,

Retinal Structure and Function
Witkovsky P
1977 Jul 1;197(4298):43-44, Science
— id: 97082, year: 1977, vol: 197, page: 43, stat: Journal Article,

Photoreceptor thresholds and visual pigment levels in normal and vitamin A-deprived Xenopus tadpoles
Witkovsky P; Gallin E; Hollyfield JG; Ripps H; Bridges CD
1976 Nov;39(6):1272-1287, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 63170, year: 1976, vol: 39, page: 1272, stat: Journal Article,

Electron microscopic observations of the mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth nerve in the Selachian brain
Witkovsky, P; Roberts, B L
1976 Dec;5(6):643-660, Journal of neurocytology
— id: 163203, year: 1976, vol: 5, page: 643, stat: Journal Article,

A functional analysis of the mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth nerve in the selachian brain
Roberts, B L; Witkovsky, P
1975 Sep;190(1101):473-495, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a biological character
— id: 163204, year: 1975, vol: 190, page: 473, stat: Journal Article,

Slow PIII component of the carp electroretinogram
Witkovsky, P; Dudek, F E; Ripps, H
1975 Feb;65(2):119-134, Journal of general physiology
— id: 163173, year: 1975, vol: 65, page: 119, stat: Journal Article,

The light microscopical structure of the mesencephalic nucleus of the fifth nerve in the selachian brain
Witkovsky, P; Roberts, B L
1975 Sep;190(1101):457-471, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing papers of a biological character
— id: 163205, year: 1975, vol: 190, page: 457, stat: Journal Article,

Pigmented retinal epithelium involvement in photoreceptor development and function
Hollyfield, J G; Witkovsky, P
1974 Sep;189(3):357-378, Journal of experimental zoology
— id: 163206, year: 1974, vol: 189, page: 357, stat: Journal Article,

Interreceptoral junctions in the teleost retina
Witkovsky P; Shakib M; Ripps H
1974 Dec;13(12):996-1009, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 22947, year: 1974, vol: 13, page: 996, stat: Journal Article,

Functional characteristics of single units in the spinal trigeminal nucleus of the pigeon
Silver, R; Witkovsky, P
1973 ;8(4):287-303, Brain behavior & evolution
— id: 67482, year: 1973, vol: 8, page: 287, stat: Journal Article,

Retinal structure in the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis: general description and light microscopy of giant ganglion cells
Stell, W K; Witkovsky, P
1973 Mar;148(1):1-31, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163210, year: 1973, vol: 148, page: 1, stat: Journal Article,

Retinal structure in the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis: light microscopy of photoreceptor and horizontal cells
Stell, W K; Witkovsky, P
1973 Mar;148(1):33-45, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163208, year: 1973, vol: 148, page: 33, stat: Journal Article,

Action spectra and adaptation properties of carp photoreceptors
Witkovsky P; Nelson J; Ripps H
1973 Apr;61(4):401-423, Journal of general physiology
— id: 65751, year: 1973, vol: 61, page: 401, stat: Journal Article,

Retinal structure in the smooth dogfish Mustelus canis: electron microscopy of serially sectioned bipolar cell synaptic terminals
Witkovsky, P; Stell, W K
1973 Jul;150(2):147-167, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163207, year: 1973, vol: 150, page: 147, stat: Journal Article,

Retinal structure in the smooth dogfish, Mustelus canis: light microscopy of bipolar cells
Witkovsky, P; Stell, W K
1973 Mar;148(1):47-59, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163209, year: 1973, vol: 148, page: 47, stat: Journal Article,

The nucleus basalis of the pigeon: a single-unit analysis
Witkovsky, P; Zeigler, H P; Silver, R
1973 Jan 1;147(1):119-128, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 67483, year: 1973, vol: 147, page: 119, stat: Journal Article,

Dogfish ganglion cell discharge resulting from extrinsic polarization of the horizontal cells
Naka, K I; Witkovsky, P
1972 Jun;223(2):449-460, Journal of physiology
— id: 163211, year: 1972, vol: 223, page: 449, stat: Journal Article,

Peripheral mechanisms of vision
Witkovsky, P
1971 ;33:257-280, Annual review of physiology
— id: 163214, year: 1971, vol: 33, page: 257, stat: Journal Article,

Synapses made by myelinated fibers running to teleost and elasmobranch retinas
Witkovsky, P
1971 Jun;142(2):205-221, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163212, year: 1971, vol: 142, page: 205, stat: Journal Article,

Synaptic relationships in the plexiform layers of carp retina
Witkovsky, P; Dowling, J E
1969 ;100(1):60-82, Zeitschrift fur Zellforschung und mikroskopische Anatomie (1948)
— id: 163215, year: 1969, vol: 100, page: 60, stat: Journal Article,

The effect of chromatic adaptation on color sensitivity of the carp electroretinogram
Witkovsky, P
1968 Jul;8(7):823-837, Vision research
— id: 163217, year: 1968, vol: 8, page: 823, stat: Journal Article,

The main sensory trigeminal nucleus in the pigeon: a single-unit analysis
Zeigler, H P; Witkovsky, P
1968 Nov;134(3):255-264, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163216, year: 1968, vol: 134, page: 255, stat: Journal Article,

A comparison of ganglion cell and S-potential response properties in carp retina
Witkovsky, P
1967 May;30(3):546-561, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 163218, year: 1967, vol: 30, page: 546, stat: Journal Article,

The spectral sensitivity of retinal ganglion cells in the carp
Witkovsky, P
1965 Dec;5(11):603-614, Vision research
— id: 163219, year: 1965, vol: 5, page: 603, stat: Journal Article,

AN ONTOGENETIC STUDY OF RETINAL FUNCTION IN THE CHICK
WITKOVSKY, P
1963 Nov;61:341-355, Vision research
— id: 163220, year: 1963, vol: 61, page: 341, stat: Journal Article,

Single neuron analysis of dorsal column nuclei and spinal nucleus of trigeminal in cat
KRUGER, L; SIMINOFF, R; WITKOVSKY, P
1961 Jul;24:333-349, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 163222, year: 1961, vol: 24, page: 333, stat: Journal Article,

A functional analysis of neurons in the dorsal column nuclei and spinal nucleus of the trigeminal in the reptile (Alligator mississippiensis)
KRUGER, L; WITKOVSKY, P
1961 Aug;117:97-105, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 163221, year: 1961, vol: 117, page: 97, stat: Journal Article,