Png Loke

Biosketch / Results /

Png Loke, Ph.D.

Associate Professor;
Department of Microbiology (Microbiology )

Contact Info

341 East 25th Street
Floor 2nd Room 209
Old Public Health
New York, NY 10010

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Research Summary

Our goal is to better understand the mechanisms by which macrophages regulate immune responses, especially in the context of helminth infection. Macrophages are a key component of our innate and adaptive immune responses and are also crucial for various aspects of tissue homeostasis (eg. wound healing, tissue repair and clearance of apoptotic cells). While macrophages were originally appreciated for their anti-microbial activities, they have more recently been acknowledged as important immuno-regulatory cells that can control unwanted inflammation. We have shown that helminths can induce a population of immuno-suppressive macrophages that are dependent on Th2 cytokines, also called alternatively activated macrophages. Alternatively activated macrophages are particularly important in immune-regulation during helminth infections. Our work is mainly focused on tissue dwelling helminth parasites that cause schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis. More than 200 million people worldwide are afflicted with schistosomiasis and more than 120 million people are infected with filariasis. These are neglected diseases that cause enormous morbidity to populations predominantly in the developing world. We use the mouse model of Schistosoma mansoni as our main model system for studying the regulation of immuno-pathogenesis in vivo by alternatively activated macrophages. We also use the mouse model of Brugia malayi for studying the recruitment and differentiation of alternatively activated macrophages. Infection with the adult stage of this parasite can recruit large numbers of in vivo derived alternatively activated macrophages into the peritoneal cavity for easy isolation and characterization. We are now actively characterizing the molecular mechanisms by which they regulate inflammation. Of particular interest to us is their role in regulating mucosal immunity. In addition to mouse models of helminth infection, we have been characterizing an individual who self infected with Trichuris trichiura to treat his symptoms of ulcerative colitis in order to better understand how helminths could suppress inflammatory bowel diseases.

Research Interests

Host Pathogen Interactions, Helminth Infection, Transcriptional Profiling, Immune Regulation, Macrophage Biology

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All data from NYU Health Sciences Library Faculty Bibliography — -


Inferred metagenomic comparison of mucosal and fecal microbiota from individuals undergoing routine screening colonoscopy reveals similar differences observed during active inflammation
Tang, Mei San; Poles, Jordan; Leung, Jacqueline M; Wolff, Martin J; Davenport, Michael; Lee, Soo Ching; Lim, Yvonne A L; Chua, Kek Heng; Loke, P'ng; Cho, Ilseung
2015 Jan;:0-0, Gut microbes
— id: 1428792, year: 2015, vol: , page: 0, stat: Journal Article,

Altering the Intestinal Microbiota during a Critical Developmental Window Has Lasting Metabolic Consequences
Cox, Laura M; Yamanishi, Shingo; Sohn, Jiho; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Leung, Jacqueline M; Cho, Ilseung; Kim, Sungheon G; Li, Huilin; Gao, Zhan; Mahana, Douglas; Zarate Rodriguez, Jorge G; Rogers, Arlin B; Robine, Nicolas; Loke, P'ng; Blaser, Martin J
2014 Aug;158(4):705-721, Cell
— id: 1132022, year: 2014, vol: 158, page: 705, stat: Journal Article,

Metabolic alterations to the mucosal microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease
Davenport, Michael; Poles, Jordan; Leung, Jacqueline M; Wolff, Martin J; Abidi, Wasif M; Ullman, Thomas; Mayer, Lloyd; Cho, Ilseung; Loke, P'ng
2014 Apr;20(4):723-731, Inflammatory bowel diseases
— id: 851882, year: 2014, vol: 20, page: 723, stat: Journal Article,

Discordance Between Peripheral and Colonic Markers of Inflammation During Suppressive ART
Dunham, Richard M; Vujkovic-Cvijin, Ivan; Yukl, Steven A; Broadhurst, Mara J; Loke, P'ng; Albright, Rebecca G; Wong, Joseph K; Lederman, Michael M; Somsouk, Ma; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Deeks, Steven G; McCune, Joseph M
2014 Feb;65(2):133-141, Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes. JAIDS
— id: 759572, year: 2014, vol: 65, page: 133, stat: Journal Article,

Monocyte-derived alternatively activated macrophages retain plasticity after activation and differentiation
Girgis, N; Gundra, U M; Gonzales, M A; Loke, P
2014 November 2014;91(5):593-593, American journal of tropical medicine & hygiene
— id: 1423202, year: 2014, vol: 91, page: 593, stat: Journal Article,

Ly6Chigh Monocytes Become Alternatively Activated Macrophages in Schistosome Granulomas with Help from CD4+ Cells
Girgis, Natasha M; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Ward, Lauren N; Cabrera, Mynthia; Frevert, Ute; Loke, P'ng
2014 Jun;10(6):e1004080-e1004080 e1004080, PLoS pathogens
— id: 1051332, year: 2014, vol: 10, page: e1004080, stat: Journal Article,

Alternatively activated macrophages derived from monocytes and tissue macrophages are phenotypically and functionally distinct
Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Girgis, Natasha M; Ruckerl, Dominik; Jenkins, Stephen; Ward, Lauren N; Kurtz, Zachary D; Wiens, Kirsten E; Tang, Mei San; Basu-Roy, Upal; Mansukhani, Alka; Allen, Judith E; Loke, P'ng
2014 Apr;:120-128, Blood
— id: 922472, year: 2014, vol: , page: 120, stat: Journal Article,

Helminth colonization is associated with increased diversity of the gut microbiota
Lee, Soo Ching; Tang, Mei San; Lim, Yvonne A L; Choy, Seow Huey; Kurtz, Zachary D; Cox, Laura M; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Cho, Ilseung; Bonneau, Richard; Blaser, Martin J; Chua, Kek Heng; Loke, P'ng
2014 May;8(5):e2880-e2880 e2880, PLoS neglected tropical diseases
— id: 1012992, year: 2014, vol: 8, page: e2880, stat: Journal Article,

IL-22-producing CD4+ cells are depleted in actively inflamed colitis tissue
Leung, J M; Davenport, M; Wolff, M J; Wiens, K E; Abidi, W M; Poles, M A; Cho, I; Ullman, T; Mayer, L; Loke, P
2014 Jan;7(1):124-133, Mucosal immunology
— id: 745992, year: 2014, vol: 7, page: 124, stat: Journal Article,

Systemic impact of intestinal helminth infections
Mishra, P K; Palma, M; Bleich, D; Loke, P; Gause, W C
2014 Jul;7(4):753-762, Mucosal immunology
— id: 1042132, year: 2014, vol: 7, page: 753, stat: Journal Article,

Experimental cerebral malaria pathogenesis-hemodynamics at the blood brain barrier
Nacer, Adela; Movila, Alexandru; Sohet, Fabien; Girgis, Natasha M; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Loke, P'ng; Daneman, Richard; Frevert, Ute
2014 Dec;10(12):?-? e1004528, PLoS pathogens
— id: 1371162, year: 2014, vol: 10, page: ?, stat: Journal Article,

Bacterial Sensor Nod2 Prevents Inflammation of the Small Intestine by Restricting the Expansion of the Commensal Bacteroides vulgatus
Ramanan, Deepshika; Tang, Mei San; Bowcutt, Rowann; Loke, P'ng; Cadwell, Ken
2014 Jul;:1295-1300, Immunity
— id: 1105192, year: 2014, vol: , page: 1295, stat: Journal Article,

Cutting Edge: Chronic Inflammatory Liver Disease in Mice Expressing a CD28-Specific Ligand
Corse, Emily; Gottschalk, Rachel A; Park, Joon Seok; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Loke, P'ng; Sullivan, Timothy J; Johnson, Linda K; Allison, James P
2013 Jan;190(2):526-530, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 217292, year: 2013, vol: 190, page: 526, stat: Journal Article,

Metabolic alterations to the mucosal microbiota of inflammatory bowel disease patients are associated with Cd4+ T cell homeostasis
Davenport, M; Poles, J; Leung, J; Wolff, M; Abidi, W; Ullman, T; Mayer, L; Cho, I; Loke, P
2013 December 2013;19:S9-S12, Inflammatory bowel diseases
— id: 838142, year: 2013, vol: 19, page: S9, stat: Journal Article,

Immune regulation during helminth infections
Girgis, Natasha M; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Loke, P'ng
2013 ;9(4):e1003250-e1003250 e1003250, PLoS pathogens
— id: 922452, year: 2013, vol: 9, page: e1003250, stat: Journal Article,

A role for IL-22 in the relationship between intestinal helminths, gut microbiota and mucosal immunity
Leung, Jacqueline M; Loke, P'ng
2013 Mar;43(3-4):253-257, International journal for parasitology
— id: 232062, year: 2013, vol: 43, page: 253, stat: Journal Article,

Mucosal immune responses during helminth treatment for inflammatory bowel diseases
Loke, P
2013 November 2013;89(5):313-313, American journal of tropical medicine & hygiene
— id: 818792, year: 2013, vol: 89, page: 313, stat: Journal Article,

Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) in schistosoma mansoni liver granulomas are derived from monocytes and are phenotypically and functionally distinct from AAM derived from tissue macrophages induced by litomosoides sigmodontis infection
Loke, P; Girgis, N M; Gundra, U M; Ward, L N; Wiens, K E
2013 November 2013;89(5):438-438, American journal of tropical medicine & hygiene
— id: 818762, year: 2013, vol: 89, page: 438, stat: Journal Article,

Parasites: what are they good for?
Stumhofer, Jason S; Loke, P'ng
2013 Aug;9(3):120-128, Current immunology reviews
— id: 922462, year: 2013, vol: 9, page: 120, stat: Journal Article,

Upregulation of retinal dehydrogenase 2 in alternatively activated macrophages during retinoid-dependent type-2 immunity to helminth infection in mice
Broadhurst, Mara J; Leung, Jacqueline M; Lim, K C; Girgis, Natasha M; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Fallon, Padraic G; Premenko-Lanier, Mary; McKerrow, James H; McCune, Joseph M; Loke, P'ng
2012 ;8(8):e1002883-e1002883 e1002883, PLoS pathogens
— id: 232082, year: 2012, vol: 8, page: e1002883, stat: Journal Article,

Therapeutic helminth infection of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea alters the inflammatory signature and mucosal microbiota of the colon
Broadhurst, Mara Jana; Ardeshir, Amir; Kanwar, Bittoo; Mirpuri, Julie; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Leung, Jacqueline M; Wiens, Kirsten E; Vujkovic-Cvijin, Ivan; Kim, Charlie C; Yarovinsky, Felix; Lerche, Nicholas W; McCune, Joseph M; Loke, P'ng
2012 ;8(11):e1003000-e1003000 e1003000, PLoS pathogens
— id: 232072, year: 2012, vol: 8, page: e1003000, stat: Journal Article,

B7x in the Periphery Abrogates Pancreas-Specific Damage Mediated by Self-reactive CD8 T Cells
Lee, Jun Sik; Scandiuzzi, Lisa; Ray, Anjana; Wei, Joyce; Hofmeyer, Kimberly A; Abadi, Yael M; Loke, P'ng; Lin, Juan; Yuan, Jianda; Serreze, David V; Allison, James P; Zang, Xingxing
2012 Oct;189(8):4165-4174, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 182312, year: 2012, vol: 189, page: 4165, stat: Journal Article,

Helminthic therapy: improving mucosal barrier function
Wolff, Martin J; Broadhurst, Mara J; Loke, P'ng
2012 May;28(5):187-194, Trends in parasitology
— id: 166509, year: 2012, vol: 28, page: 187, stat: Journal Article,

T(H)17, t(h)22 and t(reg) cells are enriched in the healthy human cecum
Wolff, Martin J; Leung, Jacqueline M; Davenport, Michael; Poles, Michael A; Cho, Ilseung; Loke, P'ng
2012 ;7(7):e41373-e41373 e41373, PLoS one
— id: 174090, year: 2012, vol: 7, page: e41373, stat: Journal Article,

Tissue-specific expression of B7x protects from CD4 T cell-mediated autoimmunity
Wei, Joyce; Loke, P'ng; Zang, Xingxing; Allison, James P
2011 Aug;208(8):1683-1694, Journal of experimental medicine
— id: 232092, year: 2011, vol: 208, page: 1683, stat: Journal Article,

IL-22(+) CD4(+) T Cells Are Associated with Therapeutic Trichuris trichiura Infection in an Ulcerative Colitis Patient
Broadhurst, Mara J.; Leung, Jacqueline M.; Kashyap, Vikram; McCune, Joseph M.; Mahadevan, Uma; McKerrow, James H.; Loke, P'ng
2010 DEC 1 ;2(60):-, Science translational medicine
— id: 128828, year: 2010, vol: 2, page: , stat: Journal Article,

IL-22+ CD4+ T cells are associated with therapeutic trichuris trichiura infection in an ulcerative colitis patient
Broadhurst, Mara J; Leung, Jacqueline M; Kashyap, Vikram; McCune, Joseph M; Mahadevan, Uma; McKerrow, James H; Loke, P'ng
2010 Dec;2(60):60ra88-60ra88 60ra88, Science translational medicine
— id: 232102, year: 2010, vol: 2, page: 60ra88, stat: Journal Article,

Tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 alters the balance of TH17 to regulatory T cells in HIV disease
Favre, David; Mold, Jeff; Hunt, Peter W; Kanwar, Bittoo; Loke, P'ng; Seu, Lillian; Barbour, Jason D; Lowe, Margaret M; Jayawardene, Anura; Aweeka, Francesca; Huang, Yong; Douek, Daniel C; Brenchley, Jason M; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hecht, Frederick M; Deeks, Steven G; McCune, Joseph M
2010 May;2(32):32ra36-32ra36 32ra36, Science translational medicine
— id: 232112, year: 2010, vol: 2, page: 32ra36, stat: Journal Article,

Correlating cellular and molecular signatures of mucosal immunity that distinguish HIV controllers from noncontrollers
Loke, P'ng; Favre, David; Hunt, Peter W; Leung, Jacqueline M; Kanwar, Bittoo; Martin, Jeffrey N; Deeks, Steven G; McCune, Joseph M
2010 Apr 15;115(15):e20-e32, Blood
— id: 109206, year: 2010, vol: 115, page: e20, stat: Journal Article,

Gene expression patterns of dengue virus-infected children from nicaragua reveal a distinct signature of increased metabolism
Loke, P'ng; Hammond, Samantha N; Leung, Jacqueline M; Kim, Charles C; Batra, Sajeev; Rocha, Crisanta; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva
2010 ;4(6):e710-e710, PLoS neglected tropical diseases
— id: 111622, year: 2010, vol: 4, page: e710, stat: Journal Article,

Delineation of diverse macrophage activation programs in response to intracellular parasites and cytokines
Zhang, Shuyi; Kim, Charles C; Batra, Sajeev; McKerrow, James H; Loke, P'ng
2010 ;4(3):e648-e648, PLoS neglected tropical diseases
— id: 111956, year: 2010, vol: 4, page: e648, stat: Journal Article,

Alternative activation is an innate response to injury that requires CD4+ T cells to be sustained during chronic infection
Loke, P'ng; Gallagher, Iain; Nair, Meera G; Zang, Xingxing; Brombacher, Frank; Mohrs, Markus; Allison, James P; Allen, Judith E
2007 Sep 15;179(6):3926-3936, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 104029, year: 2007, vol: 179, page: 3926, stat: Journal Article,

Proteases in parasitic diseases
McKerrow, James H; Caffrey, Conor; Kelly, Ben; Loke, P'ng; Sajid, Mohammed
2006 ;1:497-536, Annual review of pathology
— id: 104037, year: 2006, vol: 1, page: 497, stat: Journal Article,

A genetic library screen for signaling proteins that interact with phosphorylated T cell costimulatory receptors
Zang, Xingxing; Loke, P'ng; Kim, Jayon; Wojnoonski, Kathleen; Kusdra, Leonard; Allison, James P
2006 Dec;88(6):841-845, Genomics
— id: 232122, year: 2006, vol: 88, page: 841, stat: Journal Article,

Inducible costimulator is required for type 2 antibody isotype switching but not T helper cell type 2 responses in chronic nematode infection
Loke, P'ng; Zang, Xingxing; Hsuan, Lisa; Waitz, Rebecca; Locksley, Richard M; Allen, Judith E; Allison, James P
2005 Jul;102(28):9872-9877, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 232132, year: 2005, vol: 102, page: 9872, stat: Journal Article,

Chitinase and Fizz family members are a generalized feature of nematode infection with selective upregulation of Ym1 and Fizz1 by antigen-presenting cells
Nair, Meera G; Gallagher, Iain J; Taylor, Matthew D; Loke, P'ng; Coulson, Patricia S; Wilson, R A; Maizels, Rick M; Allen, Judith E
2005 Jan;73(1):385-394, Infection & immunity
— id: 103937, year: 2005, vol: 73, page: 385, stat: Journal Article,

Emerging mechanisms of immune regulation: the extended B7 family and regulatory T cells
Loke, P'ng; Allison, James P
2004 ;6(5):208-214, Arthritis research & therapy
— id: 232142, year: 2004, vol: 6, page: 208, stat: Journal Article,

PD-L1 and PD-L2 are differentially regulated by Th1 and Th2 cells
Loke, P'ng; Allison, James P
2003 Apr;100(9):5336-5341, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 232162, year: 2003, vol: 100, page: 5336, stat: Journal Article,

Cytokine-dependent inflammatory cell recruitment patterns in the peritoneal cavity of mice exposed to the parasitic nematode Brugia malayi
MacDonald, Andrew S; Loke, P'ng; Martynoga, Robert; Dransfield, Ian; Allen, Judith E
2003 Feb;192(1):33-40, Medical microbiology & immunology
— id: 232172, year: 2003, vol: 192, page: 33, stat: Journal Article,

B7x: a widely expressed B7 family member that inhibits T cell activation
Zang, Xingxing; Loke, P'ng; Kim, Jayon; Murphy, Kenneth; Waitz, Rebecca; Allison, James P
2003 Sep;100(18):10388-10392, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 232152, year: 2003, vol: 100, page: 10388, stat: Journal Article,

Full-length-enriched cDNA libraries from Echinococcus granulosus contain separate populations of oligo-capped and trans-spliced transcripts and a high level of predicted signal peptide sequences
Fernandez, Cecilia; Gregory, William F; Loke, P'ng; Maizels, Rick M
2002 Jul;122(2):171-180, Molecular & biochemical parasitology
— id: 232182, year: 2002, vol: 122, page: 171, stat: Journal Article,

IL-4 dependent alternatively-activated macrophages have a distinctive in vivo gene expression phenotype
Loke, P'ng; Nair, Meera G; Parkinson, John; Guiliano, David; Blaxter, Mark; Allen, Judith E
2002 Jul;3:7-7, BMC immunology
— id: 232192, year: 2002, vol: 3, page: 7, stat: Journal Article,