Krystyna Frenkel

Biosketch / Results /

Krystyna Frenkel, Ph.D.

Research Professor;
Departments of Environmental Medicine and Pathology

Contact Info

550 First Avenue
PHL-802 Floor 8 Room 802C
Public Health Lab
New York , NY 10016


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1959-1964 — Warsaw University School of Chemistry, Poland, Graduate Education
1971-1974 — New York University GSAS, Graduate Education
1974-1976 — Columbia University Institute of Cancer Research, New York, NY, PostDoctoral Training

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Research Summary

We showed that tumor promoters induce oxidants and DNA base oxidation in cultured and epidermal cells isolated from mice treated in vivo. Anti-tumor promoters inhibited the tumor promoter mediated inflammation, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and formation of H2O2 and of oxidized DNA bases [5-hydroxy-methyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HMdU) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)]. These anti-promoters included (-) epi-gallocatechin gallate (EGCG, from green tea), caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE, the propolis of honeybee hives), sarcophytol A (soft coral), and Tamoxifen (TAM, an anticancer drug). 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), a complete carcinogen, also causes neutrophil infiltration, H2O2, HMdU, and 8-OHdG formation in the skin of topically treated mice. Hence, inflammation with its attendant oxidative stress and oxidative DNA base modification may be common denominators of tumor promotional processes. Therefore, inhibiting those processes with antioxidants and other chemopreventive agents might protect against cancer development. We find that DMBA induces the formation of an inflammatory cytokine IL-1a in mouse skin akin to tumor promoter TPA. IL-1a initially works to counteract the initiation step but, once tumors are formed, it contributes to the tumor promotion and progression to carcinomas in DMBA-treated mouse skin. More recently, we have been studying the mechanism of human cell transformation by arsenite or by estradiol and searching for agents that can prevent cell transformation and/or kill the already transformed cells. We find that CAPE (see above), even when used at very low doses, can prevent As-induced human cell transformation and counteract massive down-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and of the transcription factor NF-kB1, as well as induce apoptosis in As-transformed cells or cancerous breast epithelial cells, without any effect on normal cells. Genes and their protein products involved in the cell transformation are being determined. Currently, we are using a nude mouse model to establish the effects of CAPE on the growth of human breast cancer cells as xenografts. We find that CAPE inhibits growth of breast cancer ER(+) as well as ER(-) cells as tumors at doses that are very low (nmol amounts of CAPE/-mouse/day). CAPE causes down-regulation of cell proliferation, pro-survival, and cell cycle-related genes, growth factors, oncogenes, inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, pro-angiogenic factors and certain transcriotion factors. Recently, we found that cancer stem cells isolated from aggressive human triple-negative breast cancer cells respond to treatment with CAPE, including suppression of growth in soft agar and decreasing CD44 levels by >10-fold, thus, creating less malignant phenotype. All these properties could be useful in inhibiting growth, metastatsis, angiogenesis, and possibly recurrance of breast cancer in patients. In addition, we discovered that people elaborate autoantibodies (aAb) recognizing HMdU when it is coupled to bovine serum albumin. Anti-HMdU aAb levels are significantly elevated in the sera of women with a family history of cancer and those who may develop cancer (breast, colorectal, lung and others). People occupationally exposed to carcinogenic metals also exhibit elevated anti-HMdU aAb, which could be used to identify people at risk for developing cancer. In summary, our investigations are focused on: 1) studies on the mechanisms of cell transformation and carcinogenesis, with the emphasis on the role of inflammatory factors; 2) establishing whether EGCG, CAPE, and TAM suppress DMBA-mediated carcinogenesis; 3) elucidating mechanism(s) by which preventive agents exert their protective action; 4) conducting molecular epidemiology studies to prove that anti-HMdU aAb can provide a measure of cancer risk; and 5) evaluating whether CAPE could have clinical applications in preventing and/or treating human breast cancer.

Research Interests

Inflammation, Oxidants and Oxidative DNA Damage in Carcinogenesis, Cell Transformation and Carcinogenesis, Cancer stem cells, Biomarkers of Cancer Susceptibility, Prevention.

Research Keywords

biomarkers of cancer risk, carcinogenesis, chemoprevention, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative DNA damage, reactive oxygen species, tumor promotion<br>

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All data from NYU Health Sciences Library Faculty Bibliography — -


Increased endogenous oxidative levels correlate to increased iron in melanocytes
Pelle, E.; Huang, X.; Zhang, Q.; Pernodet, N.; Yarosh, D. B.; Frenkel, K.
2014 MAY;134 1 1:S124-S124, Journal of investigative dermatology
— id: 997182, year: 2014, vol: 134 1 1, page: S124, stat: Journal Article,

Propolis and its active component, Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), modulate breast cancer therapeutic targets via an epigenetically mediated mechanism of action
Omene, C; Kalac, M; Wu, J; Marchi, E; Frenkel, K; O'Connor, O A
2013 2013;5(10):334-342, Journal of cancer science & therapy
— id: 712982, year: 2013, vol: 5, page: 334, stat: Journal Article,

Menopause increases the iron storage protein ferritin in skin
Pelle, Edward; Jian, Jinlong; Zhang, Qi; Muizzuddin, Neelam; Yang, Qing; Dai, Jisen; Maes, Daniel; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Frenkel, Krystyna; Huang, Xi
2013 May-Jun;64(3):175-179, Journal of cosmetic science
— id: 438832, year: 2013, vol: 64, page: 175, stat: Journal Article,

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) derived from propolis, a honeybee product, inhibits growth of breast cancer stem cells
Omene CO; Wu J; Frenkel K
2012 May 3;:1279-1288 #, Investigational new drugs
— id: 146298, year: 2012, vol: , page: 1279, stat: Journal Article,

Protection against UVB-induced oxidative stress in human skin cells and skin models by methionine sulfoxide reductase A
Pelle, Edward; Maes, Daniel; Huang, Xi; Frenkel, Krystyna; Pernodet, Nadine; Yarosh, Daniel B; Zhang, Qi
2012 Nov-Dec;63(6):359-364, Journal of cosmetic science
— id: 211452, year: 2012, vol: 63, page: 359, stat: Journal Article,

Biomarkers of oxidant load and type-specific clearance of prevalent oncogenic human papillomavirus infection: Markers of immune response?
Siegel EM; Patel N; Lu B; Lee JH; Nyitray AG; Craft NE; Frenkel K; Villa LL; Franco EL; Giuliano AR
2012 Aug 19;:219-228, International journal of cancer
— id: 146299, year: 2012, vol: , page: 219, stat: Journal Article,

Impairment of antioxidant defenses as a contributor to arsenite-induced cell transformation
Wu, Jing; Sowinska, Anna; Huang, Xi; Klein, Catherine B; Pelle, Edward; Frenkel, Krystyna
2012 Oct;25(5):927-937, Biometals
— id: 177140, year: 2012, vol: 25, page: 927, stat: Journal Article,

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), derived from a honeybee product propolis, exhibits a diversity of anti-tumor effects in pre-clinical models of human breast cancer
Wu, Jing; Omene, Coral; Karkoszka, Jerzy; Bosland, Maarten; Eckard, Jonathan; Klein, Catherine B; Frenkel, Krystyna
2011 Sep 1;308(1):43-53, Cancer letters
— id: 134448, year: 2011, vol: 308, page: 43, stat: Journal Article,

Effects of cellular iron deficiency on the formation of vascular endothelial growth factor and angiogenesis. Iron deficiency and angiogenesis
Eckard, Jonathan; Dai, Jisen; Wu, Jing; Jian, Jinlong; Yang, Qing; Chen, Haobin; Costa, Max; Frenkel, Krystyna; Huang, Xi
2010 ;10:28-28, Cancer cell international
— id: 114147, year: 2010, vol: 10, page: 28, stat: Journal Article,

Morphologic transformation of human breast epithelial cells MCF-10A: dependence on an oxidative microenvironment and estrogen/epidermal growth factor receptors
Yusuf, Rita; Frenkel, Krystyna
2010 ;10:30-30, Cancer cell international
— id: 112553, year: 2010, vol: 10, page: 30, stat: Journal Article,

Rapamycin fed late in life extends lifespan in genetically heterogeneous mice
Harrison, David E; Strong, Randy; Sharp, Zelton Dave; Nelson, James F; Astle, Clinton M; Flurkey, Kevin; Nadon, Nancy L; Wilkinson, J Erby; Frenkel, Krystyna; Carter, Christy S; Pahor, Marco; Javors, Martin A; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Miller, Richard A
2009 Jul 16;460(7253):392-395, Nature
— id: 146300, year: 2009, vol: 460, page: 392, stat: Journal Article,

Roles of hormone replacement therapy and iron in proliferation of breast epithelial cells with different estrogen and progesterone receptor status
Dai, Jisen; Jian, Jinlong; Bosland, Maarten; Frenkel, Krystyna; Bernhardt, Guenther; Huang, Xi
2008 Apr;17(2):172-179, Breast
— id: 80282, year: 2008, vol: 17, page: 172, stat: Journal Article,

Induction and prevention of carcinogenesis in rat skin exposed to space radiation
Burns, Fredric J; Tang, Moon-shong; Frenkel, Krystyna; Nadas, Arthur; Wu, Feng; Uddin, Ahmed; Zhang, Ronghe
2007 Jun;46(2):195-199, Radiation & environmental biophysics
— id: 159218, year: 2007, vol: 46, page: 195, stat: Journal Article,

Antimutagenic effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in human breast cancer cells and relationship to gene expression
Lyon, JL; Leszczynska, JM; Wu, J; Frenkel, K; Klein, CB
2007 AUG ;48(7):613-613, Environmental & molecular mutagenesis
— id: 74191, year: 2007, vol: 48, page: 613, stat: Journal Article,

Reliability of serum assays of iron status in postmenopausal women
Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zhang, Qi; Dai, Jisen; Shore, Roy E; Arslan, Alan A; Koenig, Karen L; Karkoszka, Jerzy; Afanasyeva, Yelena; Frenkel, Krystyna; Toniolo, Paolo; Huang, Xi
2007 May;17(5):354-358, Annals of epidemiology
— id: 73252, year: 2007, vol: 17, page: 354, stat: Journal Article,

Altered iron homeostasis involvement in arsenite-mediated cell transformation
Wu, Jing; Eckard, Jonathan; Chen, Haobin; Costa, Max; Frenkel, Krystyna; Huang, Xi
2006 Feb 1;40(3):444-452, Free radical biology & medicine
— id: 64134, year: 2006, vol: 40, page: 444, stat: Journal Article,

Mapping and prediction of coal workers' pneumoconiosis with bioavailable iron content in the bituminous coals
Huang, Xi; Li, Weihong; Attfield, Michael D; Nadas, Arthur; Frenkel, Krystyna; Finkelman, Robert B
2005 Aug;113(8):964-968, Environmental health perspectives
— id: 62597, year: 2005, vol: 113, page: 964, stat: Journal Article,

OGG1 activity assessed by a sensitive HPLC technique
Pelle, E; Maes, D; Frenkel, K; Mammone, T
2005 APR ;124(4):A137-A137, Journal of investigative dermatology
— id: 55690, year: 2005, vol: 124, page: A137, stat: Journal Article,

Keratinocytes act as a source of reactive oxygen species by transferring hydrogen peroxide to melanocytes
Pelle, Edward; Mammone, Thomas; Maes, Daniel; Frenkel, Krystyna
2005 Apr;124(4):793-797, Journal of investigative dermatology
— id: 71125, year: 2005, vol: 124, page: 793, stat: Journal Article,

Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) prevents transformation of human cells by arsenite (As) and suppresses growth of As-transformed cells
Yang, Chengfeng; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Ronghe; Zhang, Ping; Eckard, Jonathan; Yusuf, Rita; Huang, Xi; Rossman, Toby G; Frenkel, Krystyna
2005 Sep 15;213(1-2):81-96, Toxicology
— id: 58743, year: 2005, vol: 213, page: 81, stat: Journal Article,

Iron-induced interleukin-6 gene expression: possible mediation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways
Dai, Jisen; Huang, Chuanshu; Wu, Jing; Yang, Chengfeng; Frenkel, Krystyna; Huang, Xi
2004 Oct 15;203(1-3):199-209, Toxicology
— id: 47848, year: 2004, vol: 203, page: 199, stat: Journal Article,

Randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of the effects of alpha-tocopherol supplementation on levels of autoantibodies against 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine in melanoma patients
Mahabir, Somdat; Frenkel, Krystyna; Brady, Mary Sue; Coit, Daniel; Leibes, Leonard; Karkoszka, Jerzy; Berwick, Marianne
2004 Feb;14(1):49-56, Melanoma research
— id: 71126, year: 2004, vol: 14, page: 49, stat: Journal Article,

Reliability of serum iron, ferritin, nitrite, and association with risk of renal cancer in women
Ali, M Aktar; Akhmedkhanov, Arslan; Zeleniuch-Jaquotte, Anne; Toniolo, Paolo; Frenkel, Krystyna; Huang, Xi
2003 ;27(2):116-121, Cancer detection & prevention
— id: 34537, year: 2003, vol: 27, page: 116, stat: Journal Article,

Influence of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy on an estrogen metabolite biomarker of risk for breast cancer
Alvarez-Vasquez, R B; Axelrod, D; Frenkel, K; Newman, M C; Sepkovic, D W; Bradlow, H L; Zumoff, B
2003 Jun;35(6):358-361, Hormone & metabolic research
— id: 38127, year: 2003, vol: 35, page: 358, stat: Journal Article,

Evidence of alterations in base excision repair of oxidative DNA damage during spontaneous hepatocarcinogenesis in Long Evans Cinnamon rats
Choudhury, Sujata; Zhang, Ronghe; Frenkel, Krystyna; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Chung, Fung-Lung; Roy, Rabindra
2003 Nov 15;63(22):7704-7707, Cancer research
— id: 72098, year: 2003, vol: 63, page: 7704, stat: Journal Article,

Ultraviolet-B-induced oxidative DNA base damage in primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes and inhibition by a hydroxyl radical scavenger
Pelle, Edward; Huang, Xi; Mammone, Thomas; Marenus, Kenneth; Maes, Daniel; Frenkel, Krystyna
2003 Jul;121(1):177-183, Journal of investigative dermatology
— id: 38128, year: 2003, vol: 121, page: 177, stat: Journal Article,

Antibodies against 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine are associated with lifestyle factors and GSTM1 genotype: a report from the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort
Wallstrom, Peter; Frenkel, Krystyna; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Gullberg, Bo; Karkoszka, Jerzy; Seidegard, Janeric; Janzon, Lars; Berglund, Goran
2003 May;12(5):444-451, Cancer epidemiology biomarkers & prevention
— id: 38129, year: 2003, vol: 12, page: 444, stat: Journal Article,

Oxidized DNA bases in breast cancer
Desai, Mehul; Frenkel, Krystyna
[S.l.] : Ft. Belvoir Defense Technical Information Center, 2002,
— id: 1278, year: 2002, vol: , page: , stat: ,

Chronic inflammation and cancer - The Shacter/Weitzman article reviewed
Frenkel, K
2002 Feb;16(2):230-231, Oncology
— id: 27531, year: 2002, vol: 16, page: 230, stat: Journal Article,

Ferrous ion autoxidation and its chelation in iron-loaded human liver HepG2 cells
Huang, Xi; Dai, Jisen; Fournier, Jeanine; Ali, Aktar M; Zhang, Qi; Frenkel, Krystyna
2002 Jan 1;32(1):84-92, Free radical biology & medicine
— id: 34035, year: 2002, vol: 32, page: 84, stat: Journal Article,

Interleukin-1alpha up-regulation in vivo by a potent carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and control of DMBA-induced inflammatory responses
Li, Xiaolu; Eckard, Jonathan; Shah, Rajendra; Malluck, Chenlu; Frenkel, Krystyna
2002 Jan 15;62(2):417-423, Cancer research
— id: 34034, year: 2002, vol: 62, page: 417, stat: Journal Article,

Arsenic-mediated cellular signal transduction, transcription factor activation, and aberrant gene expression: implications in carcinogenesis
Yang, Chengfeng; Frenkel, Krystyna
2002 ;21(4):331-342, Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology & oncology
— id: 34033, year: 2002, vol: 21, page: 331, stat: Journal Article,

Association of tocopherols with circulating autoantibody levels against an oxidized DNA nucleoside in humans
Cooney RV; Maskarinec G; Franke AA; Okinaka L; Karkoszka J; Wilkens LR; Frenkel K
2001 Aug 15;31(4):460-468, Free radical biology & medicine
— id: 34037, year: 2001, vol: 31, page: 460, stat: Journal Article,

Oxidized DNA bases in breast cancer
Desai, Mehul K; Frenkel, Krystyna
[Alexandria VA] : Ft. Belvoir Defense Technical Information Center, 2001,
— id: 1673, year: 2001, vol: , page: , stat: ,

Importance of complete DNA digestion in minimizing variability of 8-oxo-dG analyses
Huang X; Powell J; Mooney LA; Li C; Frenkel K
2001 Dec 1;31(11):1341-1351, Free radical biology & medicine
— id: 34036, year: 2001, vol: 31, page: 1341, stat: Journal Article,

Gender differences in autoantibodies to oxidative DNA base damage in cigarette smokers
Mooney LA; Perera FP; Van Bennekum AM; Blaner WS; Karkoszka J; Covey L; Hsu Y; Cooper TB; Frenkel K
2001 Jun;10(6):641-648, Cancer epidemiology biomarkers & prevention
— id: 34038, year: 2001, vol: 10, page: 641, stat: Journal Article,

Oxidative stress-mediated transformation of MCF-10 human mammary cells: Roles of hydrocortisone (HC), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)
Yusuf, R; Frenkel, K
2001 AUG ;31(5):S142-S142, Free radical biology & medicine
— id: 54794, year: 2001, vol: 31, page: S142, stat: Journal Article,

Estrogens as endogenous genotoxic agents--DNA adducts and mutations
Cavalieri E; Frenkel K; Liehr JG; Rogan E; Roy D
2000 ;10(27):75-93, Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
— id: 34039, year: 2000, vol: 10, page: 75, stat: Journal Article,

Bioavailable or potentially bioavailable iron as a biomarker of cancer risk
Huang, X; Zhang, Q; Ali, A; Dai, J S; Frenkel, K
2000 Nov 16-20;29(Supplement 1):S16-S16, Free radical biology & medicine
— id: 15768, year: 2000, vol: 29, page: S16, stat: Journal Article,

The decomposition of peroxynitrite to nitroxyl anion (NO-) and singlet oxygen in aqueous solution
Khan AU; Kovacic D; Kolbanovskiy A; Desai M; Frenkel K; Geacintov NE
2000 Mar 28;97(7):2984-2989, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 34041, year: 2000, vol: 97, page: 2984, stat: Journal Article,

Alpha-tocopherol dietary supplement decreases titers of antibody against 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HMdU)
Hu JJ; Chi CX; Frenkel K; Smith BN; Henfelt JJ; Berwick M; Mahabir S; D'Agostino RB Jr
1999 Aug;8(8):693-698, Cancer epidemiology biomarkers & prevention
— id: 34040, year: 1999, vol: 8, page: 693, stat: Journal Article,

Serum autoantibodies recognizing 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine, an oxidized DNA base, as biomarkers of cancer risk in women
Frenkel K; Karkoszka J; Glassman T; Dubin N; Toniolo P; Taioli E; Mooney LA; Kato I
1998 Jan;7(1):49-57, Cancer epidemiology biomarkers & prevention
— id: 8027, year: 1998, vol: 7, page: 49, stat: Journal Article,

Effect of supplementation with chromium picolinate on antibody titers to 5-hydroxymethyl uracil
Kato I; Vogelman JH; Dilman V; Karkoszka J; Frenkel K; Durr NP; Orentreich N; Toniolo P
1998 Sep;14(6):621-626, European journal of epidemiology
— id: 7626, year: 1998, vol: 14, page: 621, stat: Journal Article,

Molecular markers of exposure to cadmium and nickel among alkaline battery workers
Taioli, E; Frenkel, K; Tagesson, C; Baranski, B; Ganguly, S; Karkoszka, J; Toniolo, P; Cohen, B; Garte, S
1998 MAR-APR ;3(2):129-140, Biomarkers
— id: 53516, year: 1998, vol: 3, page: 129, stat: Journal Article,

Inhibitory effects of topical application of low doses of curcumin on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced tumor promotion and oxidized DNA bases in mouse epidermis
Huang MT; Ma W; Yen P; Xie JG; Han J; Frenkel K; Grunberger D; Conney AH
1997 Jan;18(1):83-88, Carcinogenesis
— id: 34042, year: 1997, vol: 18, page: 83, stat: Journal Article,

Inhibitory effects of curcumin on tumorigenesis in mice
Huang MT; Newmark HL; Frenkel K
1997 ;27:26-34, Journal of cellular biochemistry. Supplement
— id: 7608, year: 1997, vol: 27, page: 26, stat: Journal Article,

Low serum thiol levels predict shorter times-to-death among HIV-infected injecting drug users
Marmor M; Alcabes P; Titus S; Frenkel K; Krasinski K; Penn A; Pero RW
1997 Sep;11(11):1389-1393, AIDS
— id: 7212, year: 1997, vol: 11, page: 1389, stat: Journal Article,

Inhibitory effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced tumor promotion in mouse skin and the synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in HeLa cells
Huang MT; Ma W; Yen P; Xie JG; Han J; Frenkel K; Grunberger D; Conney AH
1996 Apr;17(4):761-765, Carcinogenesis
— id: 34043, year: 1996, vol: 17, page: 761, stat: Journal Article,

Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60): a new model to study the effects of chemopreventive agents on H2O2 production
Bhimani RS; Zhong Z; Schleifer E; Troll W; Frenkel K
1995 ;19(3):292-298, Cancer detection & prevention
— id: 6577, year: 1995, vol: 19, page: 292, stat: Journal Article,

7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induces oxidative DNA modification in vivo
Frenkel K; Wei L; Wei H
1995 Sep;19(3):373-380, Free radical biology & medicine
— id: 7924, year: 1995, vol: 19, page: 373, stat: Journal Article,

Immunotoxicity of low level cadmium exposure in fish: an alternative animal model for immunotoxicological studies
Zelikoff JT; Bowser D; Squibb KS; Frenkel K
1995 Jul;45(3):235-248, Journal of toxicology & environmental health
— id: 6880, year: 1995, vol: 45, page: 235, stat: Journal Article,

Effects of in vitro nickel exposure on the macrophage-mediated immune functions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Bowser DH; Frenkel K; Zelikoff JT
1994 Mar;52(3):367-373, Bulletin of environmental contamination & toxicology
— id: 7877, year: 1994, vol: 52, page: 367, stat: Journal Article,

Occupational exposures to Cd, Ni, and Cr modulate titers of antioxidized DNA base autoantibodies
Frenkel K; Karkoszka J; Cohen B; Baranski B; Jakubowski M; Cosma G; Taioli E; Toniolo P
1994 Sep;102 Suppl 3:221-225, Environmental health perspectives
— id: 6621, year: 1994, vol: 102 Suppl 3, page: 221, stat: Journal Article,

The role of nickel and nickel-mediated reactive oxygen species in the mechanism of nickel carcinogenesis
Huang X; Zhuang Z; Frenkel K; Klein CB; Costa M
1994 Sep;102 Suppl 3:281-284, Environmental health perspectives
— id: 6647, year: 1994, vol: 102 Suppl 3, page: 281, stat: Journal Article,

Application of reliability models to studies of biomarker validation
Taioli E; Kinney P; Zhitkovich A; Fulton H; Voitkun V; Cosma G; Frenkel K; Toniolo P; Garte S; Costa M
1994 Mar;102(3):306-309, Environmental health perspectives
— id: 10381, year: 1994, vol: 102, page: 306, stat: Journal Article,

1994 APR 18 ;547(3):116-121, ACS symposium series
— id: 98445, year: 1994, vol: 547, page: 116, stat: Journal Article,

Inhibition of oxidative stress in HeLa cells by chemopreventive agents
Bhimani RS; Troll W; Grunberger D; Frenkel K
1993 Oct 1;53(19):4528-4533, Cancer research
— id: 6324, year: 1993, vol: 53, page: 4528, stat: Journal Article,

Biological markers of macrophage activation: applications for fish phagocytes
Enane NA; Frenkel K; O'Connor JM; Squibb KS; Zelikoff JT
1993 Sep;80(1):68-72, Immunology
— id: 6365, year: 1993, vol: 80, page: 68, stat: Journal Article,

Recognition of oxidized DNA bases by sera of patients with inflammatory diseases
Frenkel K; Karkoszka J; Kim E; Taioli E
1993 May;14(5):483-494, Free radical biology & medicine
— id: 13180, year: 1993, vol: 14, page: 483, stat: Journal Article,

Methods used for analyses of "environmentally" damaged nucleic acids
Frenkel K; Klein CB
1993 Aug 25;618(1-2):289-314, Journal of chromatography
— id: 6373, year: 1993, vol: 618, page: 289, stat: Journal Article,

Inhibition of tumor promoter-mediated processes in mouse skin and bovine lens by caffeic acid phenethyl ester
Frenkel K; Wei H; Bhimani R; Ye J; Zadunaisky JA; Huang MT; Ferraro T; Conney AH; Grunberger D
1993 Mar 15;53(6):1255-1261, Cancer research
— id: 13216, year: 1993, vol: 53, page: 1255, stat: Journal Article,

1993 AUG 25 ;618(1-2):289-314, Journal of chromatography. Pt. B. Biomedical applications
— id: 52242, year: 1993, vol: 618, page: 289, stat: Journal Article,

Nickel induces increased oxidants in intact cultured mammalian cells as detected by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence
Huang X; Frenkel K; Klein CB; Costa M
1993 May;120(1):29-36, Toxicology & applied pharmacology
— id: 10384, year: 1993, vol: 120, page: 29, stat: Journal Article,

The Malmo biomarker programme
Pero RW; Berglund G; Christie NT; Cosma GN; Frenkel K; Garte SJ; Janzon L; Olsson A; Seidegard J; Smulson ME; et al.
1993 Jan;233(1):69-74, Journal of internal medicine
— id: 34044, year: 1993, vol: 233, page: 69, stat: Journal Article,

Antibody titers to an oxidized thymidine moiety are altered by systemic pharmacotherapy and by ultraviolet B phototherapy
Sasson M; Stiller MJ; Shupack JL; Khasak D; Karkoszka J; Frenkel K
1993 ;285(4):227-229, Archives of dermatological research
— id: 13323, year: 1993, vol: 285, page: 227, stat: Journal Article,

Mechanisms of action of new antitumor promoters
Suganuma M; Yoshizawa S; Yatsunami J; Nishiwaki S; Furuya H; Okabe S; Nishiwaki-Matsushima R; Frenkel K; Troll W; Verma AK; et al.
1993 ;61(4):317-323, Basic life sciences
— id: 34046, year: 1993, vol: 61, page: 317, stat: Journal Article,

Relationship of oxidative events and DNA oxidation in SENCAR mice to in vivo promoting activity of phorbol ester-type tumor promoters
Wei H; Frenkel K
1993 Jun;14(6):1195-1201, Carcinogenesis
— id: 13139, year: 1993, vol: 14, page: 1195, stat: Journal Article,

Inhibition of tumor promoter-induced hydrogen peroxide formation in vitro and in vivo by genistein
Wei H; Wei L; Frenkel K; Bowen R; Barnes S
1993 ;20(1):1-12, Nutrition & cancer
— id: 34045, year: 1993, vol: 20, page: 1, stat: Journal Article,

Sensitivity to tumor promotion of SENCAR and C57BL/6J mice correlates with oxidative events and DNA damage
Wei L; Wei H; Frenkel K
1993 May;14(5):841-847, Carcinogenesis
— id: 13179, year: 1993, vol: 14, page: 841, stat: Journal Article,

Carcinogen-mediated oxidant formation and oxidative DNA damage
Frenkel K
1992 ;53(1):127-166, Pharmacology & therapeutics
— id: 13735, year: 1992, vol: 53, page: 127, stat: Journal Article,

Enhanced antibody titers to an oxidized DNA base in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases
Frenkel K; Khasak D; Karkoszka J; Shupack J; Stiller M
1992 Dec;1(5):242-247, Experimental dermatology
— id: 6622, year: 1992, vol: 1, page: 242, stat: Journal Article,

1992 JAN ;507(1):380-387, ACS symposium series
— id: 54398, year: 1992, vol: 507, page: 380, stat: Journal Article,

Tamoxifen suppresses tumor promoter-induced hydrogen peroxide formation by human neutrophils
Lim JS; Frenkel K; Troll W
1992 Sep 15;52(18):4969-4972, Cancer research
— id: 13440, year: 1992, vol: 52, page: 4969, stat: Journal Article,

Mechanism of mutagenicity by 5-hydroperoxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine, an intermediate product of ionizing radiation, in bacteria. HPMdU bacterial mutagenicity and oxidation of DNA bases
Patel U; Bhimani R; Frenkel K
1992 Oct;283(2):145-156, Mutation research
— id: 13426, year: 1992, vol: 283, page: 145, stat: Journal Article,

Suppression of tumor promoter-induced oxidative events and DNA damage in vivo by sarcophytol A: a possible mechanism of antipromotion
Wei H; Frenkel K
1992 Apr 15;52(8):2298-2303, Cancer research
— id: 13629, year: 1992, vol: 52, page: 2298, stat: Journal Article,

Lens opacification and H2O2 elevation induced by a tumor promoter
Ye JJ; Frenkel K; Zadunaisky JA
1992 ;9(1):37-48, Lens & eye toxicity research
— id: 13745, year: 1992, vol: 9, page: 37, stat: Journal Article,

1992 JAN ;507(1):316-325, ACS symposium series
— id: 54397, year: 1992, vol: 507, page: 316, stat: Journal Article,

Hydrogen peroxide formation by cells treated with a tumor promoter
Frenkel K; Gleichauf C
1991 ;12-13 Pt 2:783-794, Free radical research communications
— id: 14157, year: 1991, vol: 12-13 Pt 2, page: 783, stat: Journal Article,

Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of DNA oxidized in vitro and in vivo
Frenkel K; Zhong ZJ; Wei HC; Karkoszka J; Patel U; Rashid K; Georgescu M; Solomon JJ
1991 Jul;196(1):126-136, Analytical biochemistry
— id: 13980, year: 1991, vol: 196, page: 126, stat: Journal Article,

The role of oxidative processes in metal carcinogenesis
Klein CB; Frenkel K; Costa M
1991 Nov-Dec;4(6):592-604, Chemical research in toxicology
— id: 13852, year: 1991, vol: 4, page: 592, stat: Journal Article,

In vivo formation of oxidized DNA bases in tumor promoter-treated mouse skin
Wei H; Frenkel K
1991 Aug 15;51(16):4443-4449, Cancer research
— id: 13939, year: 1991, vol: 51, page: 4443, stat: Journal Article,

Development of fish peritoneal macrophages as a model for higher vertebrates in immunotoxicological studies. I. Characterization of trout macrophage morphological, functional, and biochemical properties
Zelikoff JT; Enane NA; Bowser D; Squibb KS; Frenkel K
1991 Apr;16(3):576-589, Fundamental & applied toxicology
— id: 14093, year: 1991, vol: 16, page: 576, stat: Journal Article,

Suppression of tumor promotion by inhibitors of poly(ADP)ribose formation
Troll W; Garte S; Frenkel K
1990 ;52(23):225-232, Basic life sciences
— id: 34047, year: 1990, vol: 52, page: 225, stat: Journal Article,

Carcinogenic sulfide salts of nickel and cadmium induce H2O2 formation by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes
Zhong ZJ; Troll W; Koenig KL; Frenkel K
1990 Dec 1;50(23):7564-7570, Cancer research
— id: 14252, year: 1990, vol: 50, page: 7564, stat: Journal Article,

Oxidation of DNA bases by tumor promoter-activated processes
Frenkel K
1989 May;81:45-54, Environmental health perspectives
— id: 10649, year: 1989, vol: 81, page: 45, stat: Journal Article,

Decomposition of nucleoside hydroperoxide by metals and metalloproteins
Frenkel K; Tofigh S
1989 Jul-Sep;21:351-357, Biological trace element research
— id: 10579, year: 1989, vol: 21, page: 351, stat: Journal Article,

Effect of metals on nucleoside hydroperoxide, a product of ionizing radiation in DNA
Tofigh S; Frenkel K
1989 ;7(2):131-143, Free radical biology & medicine
— id: 10843, year: 1989, vol: 7, page: 131, stat: Journal Article,

Hydrogen peroxide formation and DNA base modification by tumor promoter-activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes
Frenkel K; Chrzan K
1987 Mar;8(3):455-460, Carcinogenesis
— id: 34051, year: 1987, vol: 8, page: 455, stat: Journal Article,

Chymotrypsin-specific protease inhibitors decrease H2O2 formation by activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes
Frenkel K; Chrzan K; Ryan CA; Wiesner R; Troll W
1987 Sep;8(9):1207-1212, Carcinogenesis
— id: 34048, year: 1987, vol: 8, page: 1207, stat: Journal Article,

Definitive characterization of human thymine glycol N-glycosylase activity
Higgins SA; Frenkel K; Cummings A; Teebor GW
1987 Mar 24;26(6):1683-1688, Biochemistry
— id: 34050, year: 1987, vol: 26, page: 1683, stat: Journal Article,

Genetic effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine, a product of ionizing radiation
Shirname-More L; Rossman TG; Troll W; Teebor GW; Frenkel K
1987 Jun;178(2):177-186, Mutation research
— id: 34049, year: 1987, vol: 178, page: 177, stat: Journal Article,

Quantitative measurement of the diastereoisomers of cis thymidine glycol in gamma-irradiated DNA
Teebor G; Cummings A; Frenkel K; Shaw A; Voituriez L; Cadet J
1987 ;2(4-6):303-309, Free radical research communications
— id: 11406, year: 1987, vol: 2, page: 303, stat: Journal Article,

Protease inhibitors: possible preventive agents of various types of cancer and their mechanisms of action
Troll W; Frenkel K; Wiesner R
1987 ;239:297-315, Progress in clinical & biological research
— id: 11422, year: 1987, vol: 239, page: 297, stat: Journal Article,

Anticarcinogenic action of protease inhibitors
Troll W; Wiesner R; Frenkel K
1987 ;49:265-283, Advances in cancer research
— id: 11419, year: 1987, vol: 49, page: 265, stat: Journal Article,

Copper ions and hydrogen peroxide form hypochlorite from NaCl thereby mimicking myeloperoxidase
Frenkel K; Blum F; Troll W
1986 ;30(3):181-193, Journal of cellular biochemistry
— id: 34054, year: 1986, vol: 30, page: 181, stat: Journal Article,

Radiation-like modification of bases in DNA exposed to tumor promoter-activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes
Frenkel K; Chrzan K; Troll W; Teebor GW; Steinberg JJ
1986 Nov;46(11):5533-5540, Cancer research
— id: 34052, year: 1986, vol: 46, page: 5533, stat: Journal Article,

Protease inhibitors: their role as modifiers of carcinogenic processes
Troll W; Frenkel K; Wiesner R
1986 ;199(11):153-165, Advances in experimental medicine & biology
— id: 34053, year: 1986, vol: 199, page: 153, stat: Journal Article,

Quantitative determination of the 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil moiety in the DNA of gamma-irradiated cells
Frenkel K; Cummings A; Solomon J; Cadet J; Steinberg JJ; Teebor GW
1985 Aug 13;24(17):4527-4533, Biochemistry
— id: 34055, year: 1985, vol: 24, page: 4527, stat: Journal Article,

Ionizing radiation and tritium transmutation both cause formation of 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine in cellular DNA
Teebor GW; Frenkel K; Goldstein MS
1984 Jan;81(2):318-321, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 34057, year: 1984, vol: 81, page: 318, stat: Journal Article,

Protease inhibitors as anticarcinogens
Troll W; Frenkel K; Wiesner R
1984 Dec;73(6):1245-1250, Journal of the National Cancer Institute
— id: 34056, year: 1984, vol: 73, page: 1245, stat: Journal Article,

The initiation of DNA excision-repair
Teebor GW; Frenkel K
1983 ;38(2):23-59, Advances in cancer research
— id: 34059, year: 1983, vol: 38, page: 23, stat: Journal Article,

Free oxygen radicals: necessary contributors to tumor promotion and cocarcinogenesis
Troll W; Frenkel K; Teebor G
1983 ;14(2):207-218, Princess Takamatsu symposia
— id: 34058, year: 1983, vol: 14, page: 207, stat: Journal Article,

Identification of radiation-induced thymine derivatives in DNA
Teebor GW; Frenkel K; Goldstein MS
1982 ;20(2):39-54, Advances in enzyme regulation
— id: 34060, year: 1982, vol: 20, page: 39, stat: Journal Article,

Identification of the cis-thymine glycol moiety in oxidized deoxyribonucleic acid
Frenkel K; Goldstein MS; Duker NJ; Teebor GW
1981 Feb 17;20(4):750-754, Biochemistry
— id: 34063, year: 1981, vol: 20, page: 750, stat: Journal Article,

Identification of the cis-thymine glycol moiety in chemically oxidized and gamma-irradiated deoxyribonucleic acid by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis
Frenkel K; Goldstein MS; Teebor GW
1981 Dec 22;20(26):7566-7571, Biochemistry
— id: 34061, year: 1981, vol: 20, page: 7566, stat: Journal Article,

Identification of novel 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene adducts in cellular ribonucleic acid
Frenkel K; Grunberger D; Kasai H; Komura H; Nakanishi K
1981 Jul 21;20(15):4377-4381, Biochemistry
— id: 34062, year: 1981, vol: 20, page: 4377, stat: Journal Article,

1980 ;20(3):82-83, Journal of the Chemical Society. Chemical communications
— id: 34065, year: 1980, vol: 20, page: 82, stat: Journal Article,

Conformation of dinucleoside monophosphates modified with benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-oxide as measured by circular dichroism
Frenkel K; Grunberger D; Boublik M; Weinstein IB
1978 Apr 4;17(7):1278-1282, Biochemistry
— id: 34064, year: 1978, vol: 17, page: 1278, stat: Journal Article,

1977 ;99(26):8500-8502, Journal of the American Chemical Society
— id: 34066, year: 1977, vol: 99, page: 8500, stat: Journal Article,

In vitro chemical and biochemical studies on the interaction of the carcinogenic alkylating agents propane sultone and bis-chloromethyl ether with DNA and nucleosides
Frenkel, Krystyna
[S.l. : s.n.], 1975,
— id: 1672, year: 1975, vol: , page: , stat: ,

In vitro chemical and biological studies on the interaction of the carcinogenic alkylating agents propose sultone and bis-chloromethyl ether with DNA and nucleosides
Frenkel, Krystyna
[S.l. : s.n.], 1975,
— id: 1277, year: 1975, vol: , page: , stat: ,

Goldschmidt, BM; Vanduuren, BL; Frenkel, K
1975 ;16(MAR):66-66, Proceedings (American Association for Cancer Research)
— id: 28549, year: 1975, vol: 16, page: 66, stat: Journal Article,

Goldschm[...], BM; Frenkel, K; Vanduure[...], BL
1974 ;11(5):719-722, Journal of heterocyclic chemistry
— id: 28327, year: 1974, vol: 11, page: 719, stat: Journal Article,

Carcinogenicity of halo-ethers. II. Structure-activity relationships of analogs of bis(chloromethyl)ether
Van Duuren BL; Katz C; Goldschmidt BM; Frenkel K; Sivak A
1972 May;48(5):1431-1439, Journal of the National Cancer Institute
— id: 29245, year: 1972, vol: 48, page: 1431, stat: Journal Article,