Biosketch / Results /

Joel D Ernst, M.D.

Jeffrey Bergstein Professor of Medicine; Professor;
Departments of Pathology (Pathology), Medicine (ID&Immun Div) and Microbiology (Microbiology )

Clinical Addresses

Smilow Research Bldg,
522 First Avenue, Rm 901B
New York, NY 10016
Handicap Access: yes
Phone: 212-263-9410

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Medical Specialties

Infectious Diseases

Clinical Infectious Diseases;

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Board Certification

1999 — Ab Internal Medicine (Infectious Disease)


1974-1978 — University of Nebraska College of Medicine, Medical Education
1978-1979 — University of California - San Francisco (Medicine (Internal)), Internship
1978-1979 — University of California - San Francisco (Internal Medicine), Internship
1981-1982 — University of California - San Francisco (Infectious Diseases), Clinical Fellowships
1982-1984 — University of California - San Francisco (Hematology & Onc.), Clinical Fellowships

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Research Summary

The goal of the work in the Ernst Laboratory is to contribute to the eradication of tuberculosis, by understanding the mechanisms and limitations of immunity to tuberculosis and developing ways to make the immune response more effective. We develop and apply new tools adapted from immunology and bacterial genomics to study the impact of human immune responses on evolution of the bacteria, and use the information to inform new approaches to vaccine development. We also manipulate the bacterial genome, together with genetically-engineered mice, to obtain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms used by M. tuberculosis to evade recognition and elimination by host immune responses.

Research Interests

Innate and adaptive immunity to intracellular bacteria; immunity to tuberculosis; whole genome sequencing

Research Keywords

tuberculosis; dendritic cells; innate immunity; MHC class II; bacterial genome sequencing

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All data from NYU Health Sciences Library Faculty Bibliography — -


Impact of in vitro evolution on antigenic diversity of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
Copin, Richard; Coscolla, Mireia; Efstathiadis, Efstratios; Gagneux, Sebastien; Ernst, Joel D
2014 Oct;32(45):5998-6004, Vaccine
— id: 1258342, year: 2014, vol: 32, page: 5998, stat: Journal Article,

Sequence diversity in the pe_pgrs genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is independent of human T cell recognition
Copin, Richard; Coscolla, Mireia; Seiffert, Salome N; Bothamley, Graham; Sutherland, Jayne; Mbayo, Georgetta; Gagneux, Sebastien; Ernst, Joel D
2014 ;5(1):e00960-e00913, MBio
— id: 900642, year: 2014, vol: 5, page: e00960, stat: Journal Article,

LprG-Mediated Surface Expression of Lipoarabinomannan Is Essential for Virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Gaur, Rajiv L; Ren, Kangning; Blumenthal, Antje; Bhamidi, Suresh; Gibbs, Sara; Jackson, Mary; Zare, Richard N; Ehrt, Sabine; Ernst, Joel D; Banaei, Niaz
2014 Sep;10(9):e1004376-e1004376 e1004376, PLoS pathogens
— id: 1252372, year: 2014, vol: 10, page: e1004376, stat: Journal Article,

Cell-to-Cell Transfer of M. tuberculosis Antigens Optimizes CD4 T Cell Priming
Srivastava, Smita; Ernst, Joel D
2014 Jun;15(6):741-752, Cell host & microbe
— id: 1033822, year: 2014, vol: 15, page: 741, stat: Journal Article,

Beyond macrophages: the diversity of mononuclear cells in tuberculosis
Srivastava, Smita; Ernst, Joel D; Desvignes, Ludovic
2014 Nov;262(1):179-192, Immunological reviews
— id: 1310232, year: 2014, vol: 262, page: 179, stat: Journal Article,

Induction of neural guidance molecule expression in macrophages and dendritic cells by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Bracho-Sanchez, Edith; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Desvignes, Ludovic; Moore, Kathryn; Ernst, Joel
2013 MAY 1;190:-, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 540702, year: 2013, vol: 190, page: , stat: Journal Article,

PE-PGRS genetic diversity in mycobacterium tuberculosis is not related to immune escape
Coscolla, M; Copin, R; Seiffert, S; Birrer, S; Davis, D; Ernst, J; Gagneux, S
2013 15 May 2013;4(4):338-339, Virulence
— id: 452892, year: 2013, vol: 4, page: 338, stat: Journal Article,

PE_PGRS Genetic Diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Is Not Related to Immune Escape
Coscolla, M; Copin, R; Seiffert, S; Birrer, S; Davis, D; Ernst, J; Gagneux, S
2013 15 May 2013;Chakravortty(DDepartment):-, Virulence
— id: 782222, year: 2013, vol: Chakravortty, page: , stat: Journal Article,

Taking sides: interferons in leprosy
Desvignes, Ludovic P; Ernst, Joel D
2013 Apr;13(4):377-378, Cell host & microbe
— id: 304952, year: 2013, vol: 13, page: 377, stat: Journal Article,

Cutting Edge: Direct Recognition of Infected Cells by CD4 T Cells Is Required for Control of Intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis In Vivo
Srivastava, Smita; Ernst, Joel D
2013 Aug;191(3):1016-1020, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 458682, year: 2013, vol: 191, page: 1016, stat: Journal Article,

Equivalent T cell epitope promiscuity in ecologically diverse human pathogens
Wiens, Kirsten E; Swaminathan, Harish; Copin, Richard; Lun, Desmond S; Ernst, Joel D
2013 ;8(8):e73124-e73124 e73124, PLoS one
— id: 503592, year: 2013, vol: 8, page: e73124, stat: Journal Article,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inhibits Neutrophil Apoptosis, Leading to Delayed Activation of Naive CD4 T cells
Blomgran, Robert; Desvignes, Ludovic; Briken, Volker; Ernst, Joel D
2012 Jan 19;11(1):81-90, Cell host & microbe
— id: 150571, year: 2012, vol: 11, page: 81, stat: Journal Article,

Impaired Fitness of Mycobacterium africanum Despite Secretion of ESAT-6
Bold, Tyler D; Davis, Daphne C; Penberthy, Kristen K; Cox, Laura M; Ernst, Joel D; de Jong, Bouke C
2012 Mar;205(6):984-990, Journal of infectious diseases
— id: 160239, year: 2012, vol: 205, page: 984, stat: Journal Article,

CD4+ T Cell-Dependent IFN-gamma Production by CD8+ Effector T Cells in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Bold, Tyler D; Ernst, Joel D
2012 Sep;189(5):2530-2536, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 175784, year: 2012, vol: 189, page: 2530, stat: Journal Article,

Dynamic Roles of Type I and Type II IFNs in Early Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Desvignes, Ludovic; Wolf, Andrea J; Ernst, Joel D
2012 Jun;188(12):6205-6215, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 169247, year: 2012, vol: 188, page: 6205, stat: Journal Article,

Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)
Ernst, Joel D
Goldman ,
— id: 1412822, year: 2012, vol: , page: 1950, stat: Chapter,

The immunological life cycle of tuberculosis
Ernst, Joel D
2012 ;12(8):581-591, Nature reviews. Immunology
— id: 174078, year: 2012, vol: 12, page: 581, stat: Journal Article,

Meeting report: The international conference on human immunity to tuberculosis
Ernst, Joel D; Hanekom, Willem; Hawn, Tom; Kampmann, Beate; Rengarajan, Jyothi
2012 Sep;92(5):440-444, Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
— id: 177020, year: 2012, vol: 92, page: 440, stat: Journal Article,

Variation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigen-Specific IFN-gamma and IL-17 Responses in Healthy Tuberculin Skin Test (TST)-Positive Human Subjects
Fan, Lin; Xiao, He-Ping; Hu, Zhong-Yi; Ernst, Joel D
2012 ;7(8):e42716-e42716 e42716, PLoS one
— id: 174405, year: 2012, vol: 7, page: e42716, stat: Journal Article,

Tuberculosis Pathogenesis and Immunity
Philips JA; Ernst JD
2012 Feb;7:353-384, Annual review of pathology
— id: 145546, year: 2012, vol: 7, page: 353, stat: Journal Article,

Lung Neutrophils Facilitate Activation of Naive Antigen-Specific CD4+ T Cells during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Blomgran, Robert; Ernst, Joel D
2011 Jun 15;186(12):7110-7119, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 134309, year: 2011, vol: 186, page: 7110, stat: Journal Article,

Suboptimal Activation of Antigen-Specific CD4 Effector Cells Enables Persistence of M. tuberculosis In Vivo
Bold, Tyler D; Banaei, Niaz; Wolf, Andrea J; Ernst, Joel D
2011 May;7(5):e1002063-e1002063, PLoS pathogens
— id: 134314, year: 2011, vol: 7, page: e1002063, stat: Journal Article,

HIV and Tuberculosis: a Deadly Human Syndemic
Kwan, Candice K; Ernst, Joel D
2011 Apr;24(2):351-376, Clinical microbiology reviews
— id: 130914, year: 2011, vol: 24, page: 351, stat: Journal Article,

Directly observing therapy: a new view of drug tolerance in tuberculosis
Philips, Jennifer A; Ernst, Joel D
2011 Apr 1;145(1):13-14, Cell
— id: 130308, year: 2011, vol: 145, page: 13, stat: Journal Article,

Initiation and regulation of T-cell responses in tuberculosis
Urdahl, K B; Shafiani, S; Ernst, J D
2011 May;4(3):288-293, Mucosal immunology
— id: 134238, year: 2011, vol: 4, page: 288, stat: Journal Article,

Human T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are evolutionarily hyperconserved
Comas, Inaki; Chakravartti, Jaidip; Small, Peter M; Galagan, James; Niemann, Stefan; Kremer, Kristin; Ernst, Joel D; Gagneux, Sebastien
2010 Jun;42(6):498-503, Nature genetics
— id: 145547, year: 2010, vol: 42, page: 498, stat: Journal Article,

Ectopic activation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells in lungs of CCR7-/- mice
Olmos, Sofia; Stukes, Sabriya; Ernst, Joel D
2010 Jan 15;184(2):895-901, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 106094, year: 2010, vol: 184, page: 895, stat: Journal Article,

Lipoprotein processing is essential for resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to malachite green
Banaei, Niaz; Kincaid, Eleanor Z; Lin, S-Y Grace; Desmond, Edward; Jacobs, William R Jr; Ernst, Joel D
2009 Sep;53(9):3799-3802, Antimicrobial agents & chemotherapy
— id: 101954, year: 2009, vol: 53, page: 3799, stat: Journal Article,

TLR2-dependent inhibition of macrophage responses to IFN-gamma is mediated by distinct, gene-specific mechanisms
Benson, Sarah A; Ernst, Joel D
2009 ;4(7):e6329-e6329, PLoS one
— id: 101286, year: 2009, vol: 4, page: e6329, stat: Journal Article,

RP105 facilitates macrophage activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoproteins
Blumenthal, Antje; Kobayashi, Toshihiko; Pierini, Lynda M; Banaei, Niaz; Ernst, Joel D; Miyake, Kensuke; Ehrt, Sabine
2009 Jan 22;5(1):35-46, Cell host & microbe
— id: 95568, year: 2009, vol: 5, page: 35, stat: Journal Article,

Who benefits from granulomas, mycobacteria or host?
Bold, Tyler D; Ernst, Joel D
2009 Jan 9;136(1):17-19, Cell
— id: 95569, year: 2009, vol: 136, page: 17, stat: Journal Article,

Interferon-gamma-responsive nonhematopoietic cells regulate the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Desvignes, Ludovic; Ernst, Joel D
2009 Dec 18;31(6):974-985, Immunity
— id: 106204, year: 2009, vol: 31, page: 974, stat: Journal Article,

Anti-TNF immunotherapy and tuberculosis reactivation: another mechanism revealed
Miller, Elizabeth A; Ernst, Joel D
2009 May;119(5):1079-1082, Journal of clinical investigation
— id: 98019, year: 2009, vol: 119, page: 1079, stat: Journal Article,

Meeting Report: NIH Workshop on the Tuberculosis Immune Epitope Database
Ernst, Joel D; Lewinsohn, David M; Behar, Samuel; Blythe, Martin; Schlesinger, Larry S; Kornfeld, Hardy; Sette, Alessandro
2008 Jul;88(4):366-370, Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland)
— id: 75183, year: 2008, vol: 88, page: 366, stat: Journal Article,

Illuminating the black box of TNF action in tuberculous granulomas
Miller, Elizabeth A; Ernst, Joel D
2008 Aug;29(2):175-177, Immunity
— id: 93352, year: 2008, vol: 29, page: 175, stat: Journal Article,

CO-opting the host HO-1 pathway in tuberculosis and malaria
Sinnis, Photini; Ernst, Joel D
2008 May 15;3(5):277-279, Cell host & microbe
— id: 78798, year: 2008, vol: 3, page: 277, stat: Journal Article,

Initiation of the adaptive immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis depends on antigen production in the local lymph node, not the lungs
Wolf, Andrea J; Desvignes, Ludovic; Linas, Beth; Banaiee, Niaz; Tamura, Toshiki; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Ernst, Joel D
2008 Jan 21;205(1):105-115, Journal of experimental medicine
— id: 75722, year: 2008, vol: 205, page: 105, stat: Journal Article,

LspA-independent action of globomycin on Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Banaiee, Niaz; Jacobs, William R; Ernst, Joel D
2007 Aug;60(2):414-416, Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy
— id: 73865, year: 2007, vol: 60, page: 414, stat: Journal Article,

An analysis of the epitope knowledge related to Mycobacteria
Blythe, Martin J; Zhang, Qing; Vaughan, Kerrie; de Castro, Romulo Jr; Salimi, Nima; Bui, Huynh-Hoa; Lewinsohn, David M; Ernst, Joel D; Peters, Bjoern; Sette, Alessandro
2007 ;3:10-10, Immunome research
— id: 78799, year: 2007, vol: 3, page: 10, stat: Journal Article,

Genomics and the evolution, pathogenesis, and diagnosis of tuberculosis
Ernst, Joel D; Trevejo-Nunez, Giraldina; Banaiee, Niaz
2007 Jul;117(7):1738-1745, Journal of clinical investigation
— id: 74160, year: 2007, vol: 117, page: 1738, stat: Journal Article,

Codominance of TLR2-dependent and TLR2-independent modulation of MHC class II in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in vivo
Kincaid, Eleanor Z; Wolf, Andrea J; Desvignes, Ludovic; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Crick, Dean C; Brennan, Patrick J; Pavelka, Martin S Jr; Ernst, Joel D
2007 Sep 1;179(5):3187-3195, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 75367, year: 2007, vol: 179, page: 3187, stat: Journal Article,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis infects dendritic cells with high frequency and impairs their function in vivo
Wolf, Andrea J; Linas, Beth; Trevejo-Nunez, Giraldina J; Kincaid, Eleanor; Tamura, Toshiki; Takatsu, Kiyoshi; Ernst, Joel D
2007 Aug 15;179(4):2509-2519, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 74168, year: 2007, vol: 179, page: 2509, stat: Journal Article,

Regulation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis whiB3 in the mouse lung and macrophages
Banaiee, N; Jacobs, W R Jr; Ernst, J D
2006 Nov;74(11):6449-6457, Infection & immunity
— id: 69586, year: 2006, vol: 74, page: 6449, stat: Journal Article,

Potent inhibition of macrophage responses to IFN-gamma by live virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is independent of mature mycobacterial lipoproteins but dependent on TLR2
Banaiee, Niaz; Kincaid, Eleanor Z; Buchwald, Ulrike; Jacobs, William R Jr; Ernst, Joel D
2006 Mar 1;176(5):3019-3027, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 64137, year: 2006, vol: 176, page: 3019, stat: Journal Article,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits macrophage responses to IFN-gamma through myeloid differentiation factor 88-dependent and -independent mechanisms
Fortune, Sarah M; Solache, Alejandra; Jaeger, Alejandra; Hill, Preston J; Belisle, John T; Bloom, Barry R; Rubin, Eric J; Ernst, Joel D
2004 May 15;172(10):6272-6280, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 42682, year: 2004, vol: 172, page: 6272, stat: Journal Article,

CCR2-dependent trafficking of F4/80dim macrophages and CD11cdim/intermediate dendritic cells is crucial for T cell recruitment to lungs infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Peters, Wendy; Cyster, Jason G; Mack, Matthias; Schlondorff, Detlef; Wolf, Andrea J; Ernst, Joel D; Charo, Israel F
2004 Jun 15;172(12):7647-7653, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 43012, year: 2004, vol: 172, page: 7647, stat: Journal Article,

GTP-dependent secretion from neutrophils is regulated by Cdk5
Rosales, Jesusa L; Ernst, Joel D; Hallows, Janice; Lee, Ki-Young
2004 Dec 24;279(52):53932-53936, Journal of biological chemistry
— id: 78800, year: 2004, vol: 279, page: 53932, stat: Journal Article,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis exerts gene-selective inhibition of transcriptional responses to IFN-gamma without inhibiting STAT1 function
Kincaid, Eleanor Z; Ernst, Joel D
2003 Aug 15;171(4):2042-2049, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 38096, year: 2003, vol: 171, page: 2042, stat: Journal Article,

Innate Inhibition of Adaptive Immunity: Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Induced IL-6 Inhibits Macrophage Responses to IFN-gamma
Nagabhushanam, Vijaya; Solache, Alejandra; Ting, Li-Min; Escaron, Claire J; Zhang, Jennifer Y; Ernst, Joel D
2003 Nov 1;171(9):4750-4757, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 38268, year: 2003, vol: 171, page: 4750, stat: Journal Article,

Mechanisms of cell recruitment in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Peters, Wendy; Ernst, Joel D
2003 Feb;5(2):151-158, Microbes & infection
— id: 34826, year: 2003, vol: 5, page: 151, stat: Journal Article,

Chemokine receptor 2 serves an early and essential role in resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Peters W; Scott HM; Chambers HF; Flynn JL; Charo IF; Ernst JD
2001 Jul 3;98(14):7958-7963, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 33860, year: 2001, vol: 98, page: 7958, stat: Journal Article,

Cholesterol esterification by host and parasite is essential for optimal proliferation of Toxoplasma gondii
Sonda S; Ting LM; Novak S; Kim K; Maher JJ; Farese RV Jr; Ernst JD
2001 Sep 14;276(37):34434-34440, Journal of biological chemistry
— id: 33859, year: 2001, vol: 276, page: 34434, stat: Journal Article,

Modulation of Dengue virus infection in human cells by alpha, beta, and gamma interferons
Diamond MS; Roberts TG; Edgil D; Lu B; Ernst J; Harris E
2000 Jun;74(11):4957-4966, Journal of virology
— id: 42258, year: 2000, vol: 74, page: 4957, stat: Journal Article,

Bacterial inhibition of phagocytosis
Ernst JD
2000 Oct;2(5):379-386, Cellular microbiology
— id: 33861, year: 2000, vol: 2, page: 379, stat: Journal Article,

Editorial response: variation in clinical and immune responses to bacille Calmette-Guerin--implications for an improved tuberculosis vaccine
Ernst JD
1999 Apr;28(4):791-793, Clinical infectious diseases
— id: 33865, year: 1999, vol: 28, page: 791, stat: Journal Article,

Toward the development of antibacterial vaccines: report of a symposium and workshop. Organizing Committee
Ernst JD
1999 Nov;29(5):1295-1302, Clinical infectious diseases
— id: 33866, year: 1999, vol: 29, page: 1295, stat: Journal Article,

Center for Child and Family Health-North Carolina. What is it? And why?
Frothingham, T E; Epstein, M S; Amana, C; Amaya-Jackson, L; Ernst, J; Runyan, D K
1999 Mar-Apr;60(2):83-89, North Carolina medical journal
— id: 158220, year: 1999, vol: 60, page: 83, stat: Journal Article,

Mycobacterium tuberculosis inhibits IFN-gamma transcriptional responses without inhibiting activation of STAT1
Ting LM; Kim AC; Cattamanchi A; Ernst JD
1999 Oct 1;163(7):3898-3906, Journal of immunology (1950)
— id: 33867, year: 1999, vol: 163, page: 3898, stat: Journal Article,

Macrophage receptors for Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Ernst JD
1998 Apr;66(4):1277-1281, Infection & immunity
— id: 33871, year: 1998, vol: 66, page: 1277, stat: Journal Article,

Rates of tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers providing services to HIV-infected populations. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS
Zahnow K; Matts JP; Hillman D; Finley E; Brown LS Jr; Torres RA; Ernst J; El-Sadr W; Perez G; Webster C; Barber B; Gordin FM
1998 Nov;19(11):829-835, Infection control & hospital epidemiology
— id: 7866, year: 1998, vol: 19, page: 829, stat: Journal Article,

Transfer of phagocytosed particles to the parasitophorous vacuole of Leishmania mexicana is a transient phenomenon preceding the acquisition of annexin I by the phagosome
Collins HL; Schaible UE; Ernst JD; Russell DG
1997 Jan;110 ( Pt 2)(Suppl 5):191-200, Journal of cell science
— id: 33874, year: 1997, vol: 110 ( Pt 2), page: 191, stat: Journal Article,

Detection of altered membrane phospholipid asymmetry in subpopulations of human red blood cells using fluorescently labeled annexin V
Kuypers FA; Lewis RA; Hua M; Schott MA; Discher D; Ernst JD; Lubin BH
1996 Feb 1;87(3):1179-1187, Blood
— id: 33878, year: 1996, vol: 87, page: 1179, stat: Journal Article,

The (alpha2-->8)-linked polysialic acid capsule of group B Neisseria meningitidis modifies multiple steps during interaction with human macrophages
Read RC; Zimmerli S; Broaddus C; Sanan DA; Stephens DS; Ernst JD
1996 Aug;64(8):3210-3217, Infection & immunity
— id: 33877, year: 1996, vol: 64, page: 3210, stat: Journal Article,

Selective receptor blockade during phagocytosis does not alter the survival and growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages
Zimmerli S; Edwards S; Ernst JD
1996 Dec;15(6):760-770, American journal of respiratory cell & molecular biology
— id: 33875, year: 1996, vol: 15, page: 760, stat: Journal Article,

Phagosome-lysosome fusion is a calcium-independent event in macrophages
Zimmerli S; Majeed M; Gustavsson M; Stendahl O; Sanan DA; Ernst JD
1996 Jan;132(1-2):49-61, Journal of cell biology
— id: 33879, year: 1996, vol: 132, page: 49, stat: Journal Article,