Stewart A Bloomfield

Biosketch / Results /

Stewart A Bloomfield, Ph.D.

Adjunct Professor; Grad Advisor Neurosc Grad Pgm
Departments of Neuroscience and Physiology (Neuro/Phys) and Ophthalmology (Resident Train )

Contact Info

Address
550 First Avenue
Physiology & Neuroscience Floor 1 Room 150
Medical Science Building
New York, NY 10016

212-263-5770, 212-263-0561, 212-263-9134
212-263-5770, 212-263-0561, 212-263-9134
212-263-8072
Stewart.Bloomfield@nyumc.org

« Back to Results

Education

1981 — Washington University, St. Louis, MO, Graduate Education
1981-1983 — Dr. Bloomfield was a NIH Postdoctoral Fellow at the Biological Laboratories at Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, PostDoctoral Training

« Back to Results

Research Summary

As part of the central nervous system, the retina has for many years been an important model for understanding cell-to-cell communication and information processing in the brain. Although the retina has been traditionally thought of as a rather simple part of the brain as there are only five main neuronal types, we now know that each is comprised of numerous subtypes so that there are in fact over sixty morphological subtypes of retinal neurons. These cells partake in a wide variety of complex synaptic circuits that function to extract and encode information about an image including parameters like contrast, color, and motion. When we consider the neural circuitry of the retina, as well the rest of brain, we usually focus on chemical synaptic pathways whereby a neuron communicates with its neighbors by releasing a neurotransmitter. However, in addition to these chemical synapses, nerve cells often maintain direct specialized contacts with each other called gap junctions. These junctions take the form of intercellular channels that are composed of transmembrane proteins called connexins. These channels provide for direct electrical communication between cells by allowing the intercellular transfer of ions. Gap junctions are thus the morphological substrate for so-called electrical synapses. One important advantage for electrical synapses over the conventional chemical types is the great speed at which information can be passed from cell to cell in either direction. Although evidence for gap junctions between retinal neurons has existed for many years, their ubiquitous nature has only recently been revealed. Results from our lab indicate that nearly all neuronal cell types in the retina maintain electrical synapses. Moreover, we find that electrical synapses are highly dynamic and are regulated by light acting through protein kinase-mediated phosphorylation of gap junction connexins. Direct electrical communication between retinal neurons thus forms a major mechanism for the transmission and integration of visual information that is constantly modified as we move from night to day. A major goal of our lab is to elucidate the different functional roles played by gap junctions in visual processing. So far, we have found that electrical synapses in the retina have a wide range of functions, including spatial integration of visual signals, dark/light adaptation, encoding of image motion, and generating correlated signals sent to the brain. A second goal of our work is to determine the role of gap junctions in retinopathies such as glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa in which there is extensive cell death. We believe that at least a portion of the cell death is secondary in which factors from dying cells are released across gap junctions to kill coupled neighbors. Understanding this mechanism, including the factors released, will guide us toward therapies to increase neuronal survival in the retina and elsewhere in the nervous system under pathological conditions.

Research Interests

Neuroscience, vision, ophthalmology

Research Keywords

electrophysiology, morphology, retina, vision

« Back to Results

All data from NYU Health Sciences Library Faculty Bibliography — -

Contact:
http://hsl.med.nyu.edu/faculty-bibliography-search

Gap junctions are essential for generating the correlated spike activity of neighboring retinal ganglion cells
Volgyi, Bela; Pan, Feng; Paul, David L; Wang, Jack T; Huberman, Andrew D; Bloomfield, Stewart A
2013 ;8(7):e69426-e69426 e69426, PLoS ONE
— id: 495052, year: 2013, vol: 8, page: e69426, stat: Journal Article,

Masked excitatory crosstalk between the ON and OFF visual pathways in the mammalian retina
Farajian, Reza; Pan, Feng; Akopian, Abram; Volgyi, Bela; Bloomfield, Stewart A
2011 Sep 15;589(Pt 18):4473-4489, Journal of physiology
— id: 137837, year: 2011, vol: 589, page: 4473, stat: Journal Article,

Cadherin-6 mediates axon-target matching in a non-image-forming visual circuit
Osterhout, Jessica A; Josten, Nicko; Yamada, Jena; Pan, Feng; Wu, Shaw-Wen; Nguyen, Phong L; Panagiotakos, Georgia; Inoue, Yukiko U; Egusa, Saki F; Volgyi, Bela; Inoue, Takayoshi; Bloomfield, Stewart A; Barres, Ben A; Berson, David M; Feldheim, David A; Huberman, Andrew D
2011 Aug 25;71(4):632-639, Neuron
— id: 138009, year: 2011, vol: 71, page: 632, stat: Journal Article,

Light increases the gap junctional coupling of retinal ganglion cells
Hu, Edward H; Pan, Feng; Volgyi, Bela; Bloomfield, Stewart A
2010 Nov 1;588(Pt 21):4145-4163, Journal of physiology
— id: 114174, year: 2010, vol: 588, page: 4145, stat: Journal Article,

Connexin36 is required for gap junctional coupling of most ganglion cell subtypes in the mouse retina
Pan, Feng; Paul, David L; Bloomfield, Stewart A; Volgyi, Bela
2010 Mar 15;518(6):911-927, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 106370, year: 2010, vol: 518, page: 911, stat: Journal Article,

GABA blockade unmasks an OFF response in ON direction selective ganglion cells in the mammalian retina
Ackert, Jessica M; Farajian, Reza; Volgyi, Bela; Bloomfield, Stewart A
2009 Sep 15;587(Pt 18):4481-4495, Journal of physiology
— id: 102401, year: 2009, vol: 587, page: 4481, stat: Journal Article,

The diverse functional roles and regulation of neuronal gap junctions in the retina
Bloomfield, Stewart A; Volgyi, Bela
2009 Jul;10(7):495-506, Nature reviews. Neuroscience
— id: 100482, year: 2009, vol: 10, page: 495, stat: Journal Article,

Tracer coupling patterns of the ganglion cell subtypes in the mouse retina
Volgyi, Bela; Chheda, Samir; Bloomfield, Stewart A
2009 Feb 10;512(5):664-687, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 92176, year: 2009, vol: 512, page: 664, stat: Journal Article,

Distribution and functional roles of neuronal gap junctions in the mouse retina
Bloomfield, Stewart A; Volgyi, Bela
Eye, retina, and visual system of the mouse Cambridge, MA : MIT Press, 2008,
— id: 5248, year: 2008, vol: , page: 120, stat: Chapter,

Synaptic regulation of the light-dependent oscillatory currents in starburst amacrine cells of the mouse retina
Petit-Jacques, Jerome; Bloomfield, Stewart A
2008 Aug;100(2):993-1006, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 93305, year: 2008, vol: 100, page: 993, stat: Journal Article,

Response properties of a unique subtype of wide-field amacrine cell in the rabbit retina
Bloomfield, Stewart A; Volgyi, Bela
2007 Jul-Aug;24(4):459-469, Visual neuroscience
— id: 75383, year: 2007, vol: 24, page: 459, stat: Journal Article,

Light-induced changes in spike synchronization between coupled ON direction selective ganglion cells in the mammalian retina
Ackert, Jessica M; Wu, Synphen H; Lee, Jacob C; Abrams, Joseph; Hu, Edward H; Perlman, Ido; Bloomfield, Stewart A
2006 Apr 19;26(16):4206-4215, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 64173, year: 2006, vol: 26, page: 4206, stat: Journal Article,

Morphology and tracer coupling pattern of alpha ganglion cells in the mouse retina
Volgyi, Bela; Abrams, Joseph; Paul, David L; Bloomfield, Stewart A
2005 Nov 7;492(1):66-77, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 61844, year: 2005, vol: 492, page: 66, stat: Journal Article,

Control of late off-center cone bipolar cell differentiation and visual signaling by the homeobox gene Vsx1
Chow, Robert L; Volgyi, Bela; Szilard, Rachel K; Ng, David; McKerlie, Colin; Bloomfield, Stewart A; Birch, David G; McInnes, Roderick R
2004 Feb 10;101(6):1754-1759, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 94044, year: 2004, vol: 101, page: 1754, stat: Journal Article,

Connexin36 is essential for transmission of rod-mediated visual signals in the mammalian retina
Deans, Michael R; Volgyi, Bela; Goodenough, Daniel A; Bloomfield, Stewart A; Paul, David L
2002 Nov 14;36(4):703-712, Neuron
— id: 94045, year: 2002, vol: 36, page: 703, stat: Journal Article,

Feedback inhibition in the inner plexiform layer underlies the surround-mediated responses of AII amacrine cells in the mammalian retina
Volgyi, Bela; Xin, Daiyan; Bloomfield, Stewart A
2002 Mar 1;539(Pt 2):603-614, Journal of physiology
— id: 39699, year: 2002, vol: 539, page: 603, stat: Journal Article,

Plasticity of AII amacrine cell circuitry in the mammalian retina
Bloomfield SA
2001 ;131(2):185-200, Progress in brain research
— id: 21169, year: 2001, vol: 131, page: 185, stat: Journal Article,

Rod vision: pathways and processing in the mammalian retina
Bloomfield SA; Dacheux RF
2001 May;20(3):351-384, Progress in retinal & eye research
— id: 21215, year: 2001, vol: 20, page: 351, stat: Journal Article,

Localization of Kv3 potassium channel subunits in the mouse retina
Ozaita, A.; Volgyi, B.; Bloomfield, S. A.; Rudy, B.
2001 ;27(2):2148-2148, Abstracts (Society for Neuroscience)
— id: 92528, year: 2001, vol: 27, page: 2148, stat: Journal Article,

Morphology and physiology of the polyaxonal amacrine cells in the rabbit retina
Volgyi B; Xin D; Amarillo Y; Bloomfield SA
2001 Nov 5;440(1):109-125, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 26530, year: 2001, vol: 440, page: 109, stat: Journal Article,

Surround inhibition of mammalian AII amacrine cells is generated in the proximal retina
Bloomfield SA; Xin D
2000 Mar 15;523 Pt 3:771-783, Journal of physiology
— id: 11802, year: 2000, vol: 523 Pt 3, page: 771, stat: Journal Article,

Modulation of the tracer coupling pattern of alpha ganglion cells in the rabbit retina
Hu, EH; Bloomfield, SA
2000 MAR 15 ;41(4):S936-S936, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 54626, year: 2000, vol: 41, page: S936, stat: Journal Article,

Novel interactions with AMPA receptor binding protein (ABP)
Silverman, J. B.; Bloomfield, S.; Ziff, E. B.
2000 ;26(1-2):?-?, Abstracts (Society for Neuroscience)
— id: 92637, year: 2000, vol: 26, page: ?, stat: Journal Article,

Effects of GABA blockers on the response properties of amacrine cells in the rabbit retina
Volgyi, B; Bloomfield, SA
2000 MAR 15 ;41(4):S619-S619, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 54621, year: 2000, vol: 41, page: S619, stat: Journal Article,

Effects of TTX and GABA blockers on the response properties of an amacrine cells in the dark adapted rabbit retina
Xin, D; Volgyi, B; Bloomfield, SA
2000 MAR 15 ;41(4):S619-S619, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 54620, year: 2000, vol: 41, page: S619, stat: Journal Article,

Bi-directional movement of neurobiotin across gap junctions connecting alpha-ganglion cells to wide-field amacrine cells
Hu, E H; Xin, D; Bloomfield, S A
1999 May 9-14;40(4):S813-S813, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 15915, year: 1999, vol: 40, page: S813, stat: Journal Article,

Comparison of the responses of AII amacrine cells in the dark- and light-adapted rabbit retina
Xin D; Bloomfield SA
1999 Jul-Aug;16(4):653-665, Visual neuroscience
— id: 8495, year: 1999, vol: 16, page: 653, stat: Journal Article,

Dark- and light-induced changes in coupling between horizontal cells in mammalian retina
Xin D; Bloomfield SA
1999 Mar 1;405(1):75-87, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 7939, year: 1999, vol: 405, page: 75, stat: Journal Article,

A comparison of receptive-field and tracer-coupling size of amacrine and ganglion cells in the rabbit retina
Bloomfield SA; Xin D
1997 Nov-Dec;14(6):1153-1165, Visual neuroscience
— id: 12171, year: 1997, vol: 14, page: 1153, stat: Journal Article,

Light-induced modulation of coupling between AII amacrine cells in the rabbit retina
Bloomfield SA; Xin D; Osborne T
1997 May-Jun;14(3):565-576, Visual neuroscience
— id: 7117, year: 1997, vol: 14, page: 565, stat: Journal Article,

Tracer coupling pattern of amacrine and ganglion cells in the rabbit retina
Xin D; Bloomfield SA
1997 Jul 14;383(4):512-528, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 7284, year: 1997, vol: 383, page: 512, stat: Journal Article,

On- and off-center responses of all amacrine cells in the rabbit retina
Xin, D; Bloomfield, SA
1997 ;38(4):-, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 589442, year: 1997, vol: 38, page: , stat: Journal Article,

Effect of spike blockade on the receptive-field size of amacrine and ganglion cells in the rabbit retina
Bloomfield SA
1996 May;75(5):1878-1893, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 8445, year: 1996, vol: 75, page: 1878, stat: Journal Article,

A comparison of receptive field and tracer coupling size of horizontal cells in the rabbit retina
Bloomfield SA; Xin D; Persky SE
1995 Sep-Oct;12(5):985-999, Visual neuroscience
— id: 7065, year: 1995, vol: 12, page: 985, stat: Journal Article,

RESPONSE PROPERTIES OF LONG-RANGE AMACRINE CELLS IN THE RABBIT RETINA
BLOOMFIELD, SA; XIN, D
1995 MAR 15 ;36(4):S623-S623, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 87341, year: 1995, vol: 36, page: S623, stat: Journal Article,

THE TRACER COUPLING PATTERN OF AMACRINE AND GANGLION-CELLS IN THE RABBIT RETINA
XIN, D; BLOOMFIELD, SA; ANDREWS, AL
1995 MAR 15 ;36(4):S602-S602, Investigative ophthalmology & visual science. IOVS
— id: 87339, year: 1995, vol: 36, page: S602, stat: Journal Article,

Orientation-sensitive amacrine and ganglion cells in the rabbit retina
Bloomfield SA
1994 May;71(5):1672-1691, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 12972, year: 1994, vol: 71, page: 1672, stat: Journal Article,

A unique morphological subtype of horizontal cell in the rabbit retina with orientation-sensitive response properties
Bloomfield SA
1992 Jun 1;320(1):69-85, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 13586, year: 1992, vol: 320, page: 69, stat: Journal Article,

Relationship between receptive and dendritic field size of amacrine cells in the rabbit retina
Bloomfield SA
1992 Sep;68(3):711-725, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 13456, year: 1992, vol: 68, page: 711, stat: Journal Article,

Two types of orientation-sensitive responses of amacrine cells in the mammalian retina
Bloomfield SA
1991 Mar 28;350(6316):347-350, Nature
— id: 14095, year: 1991, vol: 350, page: 347, stat: Journal Article,

Dendritic arbors of large-field ganglion cells show scaled growth during expansion of the goldfish retina: a study of morphometric and electrotonic properties
Bloomfield SA; Hitchcock PF
1991 Apr;11(4):910-917, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 14078, year: 1991, vol: 11, page: 910, stat: Journal Article,

Dendritic current flow in relay cells and interneurons of the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus
Bloomfield, S A; Sherman, S M
1989 May;86(10):3911-3914, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 106578, year: 1989, vol: 86, page: 3911, stat: Journal Article,

Postsynaptic potentials recorded in neurons of the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus following electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm
Bloomfield, S A; Sherman, S M
1988 Dec;60(6):1924-1945, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 106579, year: 1988, vol: 60, page: 1924, stat: Journal Article,

Passive cable properties and morphological correlates of neurones in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the cat
Bloomfield, S A; Hamos, J E; Sherman, S M
1987 Feb;383:653-692, Journal of physiology
— id: 106580, year: 1987, vol: 383, page: 653, stat: Journal Article,

A functional organization of ON and OFF pathways in the rabbit retina
Bloomfield, S A; Miller, R F
1986 Jan;6(1):1-13, Journal of neuroscience
— id: 106581, year: 1986, vol: 6, page: 1, stat: Journal Article,

Roles of aspartate and glutamate in synaptic transmission in rabbit retina. I. Outer plexiform layer
Bloomfield, S A; Dowling, J E
1985 Mar;53(3):699-713, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 106583, year: 1985, vol: 53, page: 699, stat: Journal Article,

Roles of aspartate and glutamate in synaptic transmission in rabbit retina. II. Inner plexiform layer
Bloomfield, S A; Dowling, J E
1985 Mar;53(3):714-725, Journal of neurophysiology
— id: 106582, year: 1985, vol: 53, page: 714, stat: Journal Article,

Electroanatomy of a unique amacrine cell in the rabbit retina
Miller, R F; Bloomfield, S A
1983 May;80(10):3069-3073, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
— id: 106584, year: 1983, vol: 80, page: 3069, stat: Journal Article,

A physiological and morphological study of the horizontal cell types of the rabbit retina
Bloomfield, S A; Miller, R F
1982 Jul 1;208(3):288-303, Journal of comparative neurology
— id: 106585, year: 1982, vol: 208, page: 288, stat: Journal Article,

A physiological-morphological study of neuronal pathways in the rabbit retina
Bloomfield, Stewart Allen
[S.l. : s.n.], 1981,
— id: 2104, year: 1981, vol: , page: , stat: ,